Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries

Abstract


Context: Acute acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocations are very common in young and active adults. Despite the high incidence of this injury, there is still some controversy on its diagnosis and treatment.

Evidence Acquisition: This review was based on the knowledge of the current literature listed in PubMed. It summarizes the current strategies for acute AC joint injuries.

Results: Acute injuries of the AC joint are very common among active individuals. Most authors recommend panorama- (stress-) view radiographs and additional radiographs for the horizontal instability. Low-grade injuries (Rockwood I-II) should be treated conservatively whereas high-grade injuries (Rockwood IV-VI) are best treated surgically. The most appropriate treatment for Rockwood III injuries is still a matter of debate and should be recommended based on the individual needs of the patient.

Conclusions: Based on the current literature, there still is no gold standard for the diagnosis of acute AC joint injuries. As surgical techniques, the hook plate as well as the arthroscopic button techniques are commonly used leading to good and reproducible results. However, evidence of the superiority of these techniques over alternative methods is lacking.