Archives of Trauma Research Archives of Trauma Research Arch Trauma Res http://www.archtrauma.com 2251-953X 2251-9599 10.5812/atr. en jalali 2018 1 20 gregorian 2018 1 20 1 2
en BOARDS and COMMITTEES BOARDS and COMMITTEES issue-information issue-information - - http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12069
en Table of Contents Table of Contents issue-information issue-information - - http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12082
en 10.5812/atr.7245 Evaluation and Importance of Trauma Evaluation and Importance of Trauma editorial editorial Trauma;Research;Global Disease Trauma;Research;Global Disease 49 50 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7245 Akbar Behdad Akbar Behdad Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran + 98-3116242194, a_behdad@mui.ac.ir; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran + 98-3116242194, a_behdad@mui.ac.ir Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran + 98-3116242194, a_behdad@mui.ac.ir; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran + 98-3116242194, a_behdad@mui.ac.ir
en 10.5812/atr.6866 Frequency of Sports Trauma in Elite National Level Greco-Roman Wrestling Competitions Frequency of Sports Trauma in Elite National Level Greco-Roman Wrestling Competitions research-article research-article Background

Trauma is an inescapable part of sports competitions. It occurs more frequently in contact sports such as wrestling.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of injury in Greco-Roman style wrestling competitions at national level.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive epidemiological research included 50 Greco-Roman style wrestlers who participated in national level competitions between the years 2003 and 2008. A questionnaire was completed by each participant, itincluded; the number of injuries to skin, muscle tissue, bones and joints. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated by a test – retest method (r = 0.83, P = 0.0001).

Results

The most frequent injuries encountered by the wrestlers were; skin lesions (62%), followed by muscle (22%), bone (9%) and joint (7%) injuries, respectively.

Conclusions

Greco-Roman style wrestlers are at high risk of skin injuries.Therefore, they need appropriate instructions on how to avoid injuries and adequate care after their competitions.

Background

Trauma is an inescapable part of sports competitions. It occurs more frequently in contact sports such as wrestling.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of injury in Greco-Roman style wrestling competitions at national level.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive epidemiological research included 50 Greco-Roman style wrestlers who participated in national level competitions between the years 2003 and 2008. A questionnaire was completed by each participant, itincluded; the number of injuries to skin, muscle tissue, bones and joints. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated by a test – retest method (r = 0.83, P = 0.0001).

Results

The most frequent injuries encountered by the wrestlers were; skin lesions (62%), followed by muscle (22%), bone (9%) and joint (7%) injuries, respectively.

Conclusions

Greco-Roman style wrestlers are at high risk of skin injuries.Therefore, they need appropriate instructions on how to avoid injuries and adequate care after their competitions.

Sports;Wound and Injuries;Wrestling Sports;Wound and Injuries;Wrestling 51 3 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6866 Ali Akbarnejad Ali Akbarnejad College of Physical Education, University of Tehran, IR Iran College of Physical Education, University of Tehran, IR Iran Mansour Sayyah Mansour Sayyah Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550026, mansorsayyah@yahoo.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550026, mansorsayyah@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550026, mansorsayyah@yahoo.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550026, mansorsayyah@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/atr.6542 Chest Injury Evaluation and Management in Two Major Trauma Centers of Isfahan Province, IR Iran Chest Injury Evaluation and Management in Two Major Trauma Centers of Isfahan Province, IR Iran research-article research-article Background:

Chest trauma is responsible for 50% of deaths due to trauma. This kind of death usually occurs immediately after the trauma has occurred.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the various aspects of chest trauma in patients admitted to two main trauma centers located in the Isfahan Province, Iran.

Conclusions:

Since hemothorax is the main complication of blunt chest trauma in young men, we recommend that special consideration needs to be made to any case of chest trauma, especially blunt chest injuries.

Results:

The mean ages of the patients were 24.7 ± 3.1 years. Men were injured four times more often than the women. Blunt trauma was the most common type of injury. The incidence of hemothorax was 38% in blunt traumas, and 45% (P = 0.01) in penetrating ones. The incidence of pneumothorax was 43% in blunt traumas and 20% in penetrating ones (P = 0.03). The length of hospitalization was 7.2 ± 3.2 days for blunt and 10.1 ± 3.1 days for penetrating chest traumas. Five patients (5%) died during hospitalization, three of those deaths were due to arterial injuries and two cases were due to lung contusions.

Patients and Methods:

During a six month period, a cross-sectional study of 100 patients who had sustained a chest injury was carried out. Data, including; age, sex, time of accident, trauma mechanism, organ injury, hospitalization length, complications, and patient outcomes were recorded and analyzed.

Background:

Chest trauma is responsible for 50% of deaths due to trauma. This kind of death usually occurs immediately after the trauma has occurred.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the various aspects of chest trauma in patients admitted to two main trauma centers located in the Isfahan Province, Iran.

Conclusions:

Since hemothorax is the main complication of blunt chest trauma in young men, we recommend that special consideration needs to be made to any case of chest trauma, especially blunt chest injuries.

Results:

The mean ages of the patients were 24.7 ± 3.1 years. Men were injured four times more often than the women. Blunt trauma was the most common type of injury. The incidence of hemothorax was 38% in blunt traumas, and 45% (P = 0.01) in penetrating ones. The incidence of pneumothorax was 43% in blunt traumas and 20% in penetrating ones (P = 0.03). The length of hospitalization was 7.2 ± 3.2 days for blunt and 10.1 ± 3.1 days for penetrating chest traumas. Five patients (5%) died during hospitalization, three of those deaths were due to arterial injuries and two cases were due to lung contusions.

Patients and Methods:

During a six month period, a cross-sectional study of 100 patients who had sustained a chest injury was carried out. Data, including; age, sex, time of accident, trauma mechanism, organ injury, hospitalization length, complications, and patient outcomes were recorded and analyzed.

Thorax;Complications;Wound and Injury;Mortality Thorax;Complications;Wound and Injury;Mortality 54 7 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6542 Mahdi Mohammadzadeh Mahdi Mohammadzadeh Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Mehrdad Hosseinpour Mehrdad Hosseinpour Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Azadeh Sadat Mirzadeh Azadeh Sadat Mirzadeh Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Hoda Jazayeri Hoda Jazayeri Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Mohammad Ghannaee Arani Mohammad Ghannaee Arani Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, IR Iran +98-9131294109, meh_hosseinpour@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/atr.6444 Correlation of End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide with Arterial Carbon Dioxide in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Correlation of End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide with Arterial Carbon Dioxide in Mechanically Ventilated Patients research-article research-article Background:

Patients undergone mechanical ventilation need rapid and reliable evaluation of their respiratory status. Monitoring of End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) as a surrogate, noninvasive measurement of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is one of the methods used for this purpose in intubated patients.

Objectives:

The aim of the present trial was to study the relationship between end-tidal CO2 tensions with PaCO2 measurements in mechanically ventilated patients.

Materials and Methods:

End-tidal carbon dioxide levels were recorded at the time of arterial blood gas sampling. Patients who were undergoing one of the mechanical ventilation methods such as: synchronized mandatory mechanical ventilation (SIMV), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and T-Tube were enrolled in this study. The difference between ETCO2 and PaCO2 was tested with a paired t-test. The correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide to (ETCO2) CO2 was obtained in all patients.

Results:

A total of 219 arterial blood gases were obtained from 87 patients (mean age, 71.7 ± 15.1 years). Statistical analysis demonstrated a good correlation between the mean of ETCO2 and PaCO2 in each of the modes of SIMV, CPAP and T-Tube; SIMV (42.5 ± 17.3 and 45.8 ± 17.1; r = 0.893, P < 0.0001), CPAP (37 ± 9.7 and 39.4 ± 10.1; r = 0.841, P < 0.0001) and T-Tube (36.1 ± 9.9 and 39.4 ± 11; r = 0.923, P < 0.0001), respectively.

Conclusions:

End-tidal CO2 measurement provides an accurate estimation of PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients. Its use may reduce the need for invasive monitoring and/or repeated arterial blood gas analyses.

Background:

Patients undergone mechanical ventilation need rapid and reliable evaluation of their respiratory status. Monitoring of End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) as a surrogate, noninvasive measurement of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is one of the methods used for this purpose in intubated patients.

Objectives:

The aim of the present trial was to study the relationship between end-tidal CO2 tensions with PaCO2 measurements in mechanically ventilated patients.

Materials and Methods:

End-tidal carbon dioxide levels were recorded at the time of arterial blood gas sampling. Patients who were undergoing one of the mechanical ventilation methods such as: synchronized mandatory mechanical ventilation (SIMV), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and T-Tube were enrolled in this study. The difference between ETCO2 and PaCO2 was tested with a paired t-test. The correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide to (ETCO2) CO2 was obtained in all patients.

Results:

A total of 219 arterial blood gases were obtained from 87 patients (mean age, 71.7 ± 15.1 years). Statistical analysis demonstrated a good correlation between the mean of ETCO2 and PaCO2 in each of the modes of SIMV, CPAP and T-Tube; SIMV (42.5 ± 17.3 and 45.8 ± 17.1; r = 0.893, P < 0.0001), CPAP (37 ± 9.7 and 39.4 ± 10.1; r = 0.841, P < 0.0001) and T-Tube (36.1 ± 9.9 and 39.4 ± 11; r = 0.923, P < 0.0001), respectively.

Conclusions:

End-tidal CO2 measurement provides an accurate estimation of PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients. Its use may reduce the need for invasive monitoring and/or repeated arterial blood gas analyses.

Blood Gas Analysis;Carbon Dioxide;Artificial Respiration Blood Gas Analysis;Carbon Dioxide;Artificial Respiration 58 62 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6444 Ebrahim Razi Ebrahim Razi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Gholam Abbass Moosavi Gholam Abbass Moosavi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Keivan Omidi Keivan Omidi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Ashkan Khakpour Khakpour Saebi Ashkan Khakpour Khakpour Saebi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Armin Razi Armin Razi Faculty of Medicine,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogw, , IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogw, , IR Iran Faculty of Medicine,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogw, , IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine,s{iiimdbgmmw{|}iuowws{}}yoofmmemkcmlsskmoogw, , IR Iran
en 10.5812/atr.6770 Demographic Profiles of Adult Trauma During a 5 Year Period (2007-2011) in Kashan, IR Iran Demographic Profiles of Adult Trauma During a 5 Year Period (2007-2011) in Kashan, IR Iran research-article research-article Background

Trauma, in addition to mortality and disability experienced by an individual, imposes direct and indirect economic and social costs on a community. Traditionally, trauma is a disease of young and middle age adults, an age group which is known to be the most dynamic and economically productive of the community. Increasing our knowledge concerning the etiology and patterns of trauma seems to be the most profitable and accessible way to prevent injuries of this nature.

Objectives

This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of adult trauma in Kashan, Iran.

Patients and Methods

The current study used a retrospective cross-sectional approach, enrolling all trauma adults (20 - 60 y) admitted to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, between 2007 and 2011. Age, gender, place of residence, work status, educational level, urban/rural location of the accident, method of transportation to hospital, injured body areas of the victims and therapeutic interventions, were extracted from the data registry and analyzed through descriptive statistics using SPSS software.

Results

A total of 22 564 patients were included in this study. Mean age of the victims was 33.18 ± 10.90 years and the male/female ratio was 4:1. Most of the victims were manual workers (61%), and they had completed primary and junior high school level education (49.4%), they were also more likely to be residents of urban areas (88.6%). Regarding the place of injury, most accidents occurred on city streets (43.8%). Approximately 40% of the total victims were transferred to the hospital by emergency medical services (EMS). During the study period, 260 deaths were recorded and among these, 76% were related to traffic accidents.

Conclusions

Regarding the high prevalence of trauma found in manual workers with low educational levels and motorbike users, the establishment of an integrated program aimed at improving public knowledge on the use of safety and protective measures in work environments should be implemented. The use of safety protective equipment by cyclists, motorbikers and car passengers should also be enforced.

Background

Trauma, in addition to mortality and disability experienced by an individual, imposes direct and indirect economic and social costs on a community. Traditionally, trauma is a disease of young and middle age adults, an age group which is known to be the most dynamic and economically productive of the community. Increasing our knowledge concerning the etiology and patterns of trauma seems to be the most profitable and accessible way to prevent injuries of this nature.

Objectives

This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of adult trauma in Kashan, Iran.

Patients and Methods

The current study used a retrospective cross-sectional approach, enrolling all trauma adults (20 - 60 y) admitted to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, between 2007 and 2011. Age, gender, place of residence, work status, educational level, urban/rural location of the accident, method of transportation to hospital, injured body areas of the victims and therapeutic interventions, were extracted from the data registry and analyzed through descriptive statistics using SPSS software.

Results

A total of 22 564 patients were included in this study. Mean age of the victims was 33.18 ± 10.90 years and the male/female ratio was 4:1. Most of the victims were manual workers (61%), and they had completed primary and junior high school level education (49.4%), they were also more likely to be residents of urban areas (88.6%). Regarding the place of injury, most accidents occurred on city streets (43.8%). Approximately 40% of the total victims were transferred to the hospital by emergency medical services (EMS). During the study period, 260 deaths were recorded and among these, 76% were related to traffic accidents.

Conclusions

Regarding the high prevalence of trauma found in manual workers with low educational levels and motorbike users, the establishment of an integrated program aimed at improving public knowledge on the use of safety and protective measures in work environments should be implemented. The use of safety protective equipment by cyclists, motorbikers and car passengers should also be enforced.

Adult;Epidemiology;Wound and Injury Adult;Epidemiology;Wound and Injury 63 66 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6770 Mohammad Reza Fazel Mohammad Reza Fazel Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Esmaeil Fakharian Esmaeil Fakharian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Mehrdad Mahdian Mehrdad Mahdian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Mahdi Mohammadzadeh Mahdi Mohammadzadeh Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Ladan Salehfard Ladan Salehfard Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Maryam Ramezani Maryam Ramezani Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9133626687, mmahdian78@gmail.com
en 10.5812/atr.6445 Incidence of Snake Bites in Kashan, Iran During an Eight Year Period (2004-2011) Incidence of Snake Bites in Kashan, Iran During an Eight Year Period (2004-2011) research-article research-article Conclusions

It was concluded that snake bite cases in Kashan are similar to other areas in Iran from an epidemiological point of view, including; age distribution rates, gender and site of the bites. The existence of Macrov ipera lebetina, a dangerous venomous snake, can cause a range of clinical effects among residents in central parts of Iran, such as Kashan area.

Patients and Methods

This research was a descriptive retrospective study. Data from 2004 to 2011 of snakebite cases were collected from case reports. Information included; age and sex of the victim, district, month of incident, mortality, and time of bite.

Results

The results of this study showed that the majority of snake bite patients were male (96%). The age distribution of patients indicated that the greatest rate of snake bites occurred among the 15-24 year old group. Data collected in this study revealed that the highest incidence of snake bite cases took place in summer (60%) and the lowest number occurred in winter, with no snake bite cases being recorded. The peak number of snakebite cases was seen during June-September.

Background

Snake bites are one of the significant health problems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Snake bite is a common medical emergency in Iran, and the epidemiological features and management of such cases vary from region to region.

Objectives

This present research study was conducted to obtain new information about the epidemiology of snake bites in the region of Kashan, located in the central part of Iran.

Conclusions

It was concluded that snake bite cases in Kashan are similar to other areas in Iran from an epidemiological point of view, including; age distribution rates, gender and site of the bites. The existence of Macrov ipera lebetina, a dangerous venomous snake, can cause a range of clinical effects among residents in central parts of Iran, such as Kashan area.

Patients and Methods

This research was a descriptive retrospective study. Data from 2004 to 2011 of snakebite cases were collected from case reports. Information included; age and sex of the victim, district, month of incident, mortality, and time of bite.

Results

The results of this study showed that the majority of snake bite patients were male (96%). The age distribution of patients indicated that the greatest rate of snake bites occurred among the 15-24 year old group. Data collected in this study revealed that the highest incidence of snake bite cases took place in summer (60%) and the lowest number occurred in winter, with no snake bite cases being recorded. The peak number of snakebite cases was seen during June-September.

Background

Snake bites are one of the significant health problems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Snake bite is a common medical emergency in Iran, and the epidemiological features and management of such cases vary from region to region.

Objectives

This present research study was conducted to obtain new information about the epidemiology of snake bites in the region of Kashan, located in the central part of Iran.

Snakes;Bites and Stings;Venoms Snakes;Bites and Stings;Venoms 67 71 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6445 Rouhullah Dehghani Rouhullah Dehghani Nursing Trauma Research Center, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Nursing Trauma Research Center, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran DavarKhah Rabani DavarKhah Rabani Nursing Trauma Research Center, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Nursing Trauma Research Center, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Morteza Panjeh Shahi Morteza Panjeh Shahi Deputy of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Deputy of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mehrdad Jazayeri Mehrdad Jazayeri Deputy of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Deputy of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mohammd Sabahi Bidgoli Mohammd Sabahi Bidgoli Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Corresponding author: Mohammd Sabahi Bidgoli, Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3615550111, Fax: +98-3615550111, E-mail:. Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Corresponding author: Mohammd Sabahi Bidgoli, Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3615550111, Fax: +98-3615550111, E-mail:.
en 10.5812/atr.6556 Ancient Legacy of Cranial Surgery Ancient Legacy of Cranial Surgery other other

Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time.

Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time.

Wound and Injuries;Ancient History;Trephining Wound and Injuries;Ancient History;Trephining 72 4 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6556 Mohammad Ghannaee Ghannaee Arani Mohammad Ghannaee Ghannaee Arani Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir Esmaeil Fakharian Esmaeil Fakharian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir Fahimeh Sarbandi Fahimeh Sarbandi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-3615550021, akharian_e@kaums.ac.ir
en 10.5812/atr.6881 Omental Torsion After Repeated Abdominal Blunt Trauma Omental Torsion After Repeated Abdominal Blunt Trauma case-report case-report

Omental torsion is caused by the rotation of the greater omentum on its axis which may lead to tissue infarction and necrosis. It is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Signs, symptoms and paraclinical data are not specific. The patients usually undergo laparotomy for acute abdomen of poorly defined origin. High index of suspicious is required for the diagnosis of this entity. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after an explorative laparotomy. We present clinical characteristics and imaging findings of omental torsion in a young man following repeated blunt abdominal trauma.

Omental torsion is caused by the rotation of the greater omentum on its axis which may lead to tissue infarction and necrosis. It is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Signs, symptoms and paraclinical data are not specific. The patients usually undergo laparotomy for acute abdomen of poorly defined origin. High index of suspicious is required for the diagnosis of this entity. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after an explorative laparotomy. We present clinical characteristics and imaging findings of omental torsion in a young man following repeated blunt abdominal trauma.

Acute Abdomen ;Greater Omentum;Trauma;Omental Torsion Acute Abdomen ;Greater Omentum;Trauma;Omental Torsion 75 78 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6881 Mehrdad Hosseinpour Mehrdad Hosseinpour Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Azadeh Abdollahi Azadeh Abdollahi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Hoda Jazayeri Hoda Jazayeri Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Hamid Reza Talari Hamid Reza Talari Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Ahmad Sadeghpour Ahmad Sadeghpour Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9133626687, az_ab61@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/atr.6612 Control of Pain After Surgical Debridement of Burn Wounds Control of Pain After Surgical Debridement of Burn Wounds letter letter Burns; Debridement; Pain Burns; Debridement; Pain 79 80 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6612 Cheng Jie Jie Zheng Cheng Jie Jie Zheng Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1183, New York, NY 10029, USA +1-2125184524, albert.wu@mssm.edu Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1183, New York, NY 10029, USA +1-2125184524, albert.wu@mssm.edu Albert Y Wu Albert Y Wu Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1183, New York, NY 10029, USA +1-2125184524, albert.wu@mssm.edu; Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1183, New York, NY 10029, USA +1-2125184524, albert.wu@mssm.edu Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1183, New York, NY 10029, USA +1-2125184524, albert.wu@mssm.edu; Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1183, New York, NY 10029, USA +1-2125184524, albert.wu@mssm.edu
en 10.5812/atr.6636 The Concurrent Use of Gabapentin and Opioid Analgesia in Burns Patients The Concurrent Use of Gabapentin and Opioid Analgesia in Burns Patients letter letter Burns; Gabapentin; Opioid Analgescics Burns; Gabapentin; Opioid Analgescics 81 2 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6636 Fiona McClenaghan Fiona McClenaghan Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Royal London Hospital, UK +44-7880785300, fiona.mcclenaghan@gmail.com; Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Royal London Hospital, UK +44-7880785300, fiona.mcclenaghan@gmail.com Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Royal London Hospital, UK +44-7880785300, fiona.mcclenaghan@gmail.com; Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Royal London Hospital, UK +44-7880785300, fiona.mcclenaghan@gmail.com
en 10.5812/atr.6468 The Use of Gabapentin to Decrease Morphine Consumption After Surgical Debridement for Burns The Use of Gabapentin to Decrease Morphine Consumption After Surgical Debridement for Burns letter letter Gabapentin;Burns;Morphine Gabapentin;Burns;Morphine 83 84 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6468 Gerard Ee Gerard Ee National University Hospital, Queenstown, Singapore +65-85223601, gerardee@gmail.com; National University Hospital, Queenstown, Singapore +65-85223601, gerardee@gmail.com National University Hospital, Queenstown, Singapore +65-85223601, gerardee@gmail.com; National University Hospital, Queenstown, Singapore +65-85223601, gerardee@gmail.com Rachel Ho Rachel Ho Singapore General Hospital, Singapore Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
en 10.5812/atr.6489 Gabapentin for Pain Control After Surgical Debridement of Burn Wounds Gabapentin for Pain Control After Surgical Debridement of Burn Wounds letter letter Gabapentin;Pain;Burns Gabapentin;Pain;Burns 85 86 http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6489 Abdul Ahad Ahad Khan Abdul Ahad Ahad Khan Medical College, Aga Khan University, Pakistan Medical College, Aga Khan University, Pakistan Muhammad Shahzad Shahzad Shamim Muhammad Shahzad Shahzad Shamim Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Pakistan +92-2134930051, shahzad.shamim@aku.edu; Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Pakistan +92-2134930051, shahzad.shamim@aku.edu Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Pakistan +92-2134930051, shahzad.shamim@aku.edu; Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Pakistan +92-2134930051, shahzad.shamim@aku.edu