Archives of Trauma Research Archives of Trauma Research Arch Trauma Res http://www.archtrauma.com 2251-953X 2251-9599 10.5812/atr. en jalali 2018 1 23 gregorian 2018 1 23 3 1
en 10.5812/atr.6471 Gabapentin in Burns Gabapentin in Burns letter letter Burns;Pruritus;Gabapentin Burns;Pruritus;Gabapentin http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6471 Nicholas Sheppard Nicholas Sheppard Department of Plastic Surgery, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, UK; Department of Plastic Surgery, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, UK. Tel: +44-7980901395 Department of Plastic Surgery, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, UK; Department of Plastic Surgery, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, UK. Tel: +44-7980901395
en 10.5812/atr.9034 A Different Approach to Traffic Accidents as the Main Cause of Trauma in Developing Countries A Different Approach to Traffic Accidents as the Main Cause of Trauma in Developing Countries letter letter http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9034 Pezhman Bagheri Pezhman Bagheri Department of Education and Research, Jiroft University of Medical Science, Jiroft, IR Iran; Department of Education and Research, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Pasdaran Boulevard, Jiroft, IR Iran, Tel/Fax: + 98-3482318084 Department of Education and Research, Jiroft University of Medical Science, Jiroft, IR Iran; Department of Education and Research, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Pasdaran Boulevard, Jiroft, IR Iran, Tel/Fax: + 98-3482318084 Mahdi Moshki Mahdi Moshki Department of Public Health, School of Health; Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Science, Gonabad, IR Iran Department of Public Health, School of Health; Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Science, Gonabad, IR Iran
en 10.5812/atr.10473 Queuing Theory to Decrease Waiting Times in Emergency Department Queuing Theory to Decrease Waiting Times in Emergency Department letter letter Queuing Theory;Emergencies Queuing Theory;Emergencies http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=10473 Fernando-Miguel Cantero Fernando-Miguel Cantero Research Network for Health Services in Chronic Disease (REDISSEC), Costa del Sol Hospital, University of Malaga, Marbella, Spain Research Network for Health Services in Chronic Disease (REDISSEC), Costa del Sol Hospital, University of Malaga, Marbella, Spain Maximino Redondo Maximino Redondo Research Network for Health Services in Chronic Disease (REDISSEC), Costa del Sol Hospital, University of Malaga, Marbella, Spain; Research Network for Health Services in Chronic Disease (REDISSEC), Costa del Sol Hospital, University of Malaga, Marbella, Spain. Tel: +34-951976773, Fax: +34-951976788 Research Network for Health Services in Chronic Disease (REDISSEC), Costa del Sol Hospital, University of Malaga, Marbella, Spain; Research Network for Health Services in Chronic Disease (REDISSEC), Costa del Sol Hospital, University of Malaga, Marbella, Spain. Tel: +34-951976773, Fax: +34-951976788
en 10.5812/atr.15575 Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula After Kickboxing Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula After Kickboxing Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature case-report case-report Introduction:

A traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) after repetitive blunt trauma has not been described previously. In a 34-year-old male, the first reported case of such an injury after repetitive blunt trauma is described.

Case Presentation:

A 34-year-old gentleman presented with a non-healing ulcer near his medial malleolus. A bone scan was performed and then treated for presumed osteomyelitis. An arteriogram confirmed an AVF, and coil embolization was performed with complete occlusion of the AVF. Subsequently, the ulcer healed rapidly with no complication. Along with the cause of AVF, this case is notable for symptom presentation.

Conclusions:

Arteriovenous fistula after blunt trauma can present as a non-healing venous stasis ulcer, which could be treated non-invasively.

Introduction:

A traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) after repetitive blunt trauma has not been described previously. In a 34-year-old male, the first reported case of such an injury after repetitive blunt trauma is described.

Case Presentation:

A 34-year-old gentleman presented with a non-healing ulcer near his medial malleolus. A bone scan was performed and then treated for presumed osteomyelitis. An arteriogram confirmed an AVF, and coil embolization was performed with complete occlusion of the AVF. Subsequently, the ulcer healed rapidly with no complication. Along with the cause of AVF, this case is notable for symptom presentation.

Conclusions:

Arteriovenous fistula after blunt trauma can present as a non-healing venous stasis ulcer, which could be treated non-invasively.

Arteriovenous Fistula;Wound Healing;Trauma Centers Arteriovenous Fistula;Wound Healing;Trauma Centers http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=15575 Masoud Rezvani Masoud Rezvani Department of Surgery, Abington Memorial Hospital, Abington, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Surgery, Abington Memorial Hospital, 1200 Old York Road, Abington, PA 19001 Abington, Pennsylvania, USA. Tel: +1-2673176364, Fax: +1-8885880634 Department of Surgery, Abington Memorial Hospital, Abington, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Surgery, Abington Memorial Hospital, 1200 Old York Road, Abington, PA 19001 Abington, Pennsylvania, USA. Tel: +1-2673176364, Fax: +1-8885880634
en 10.5812/atr.13110 Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome in Morbidly Obese Patients Following Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome in Morbidly Obese Patients Following Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery research-article research-article Conclusions

In this study, the authors analyzed the location and disturbance level of pain after LGBP, which could serve as a cornerstone for further researches. The authors suggest that long-term follow-up (for more than a year after operation) should be considered in future studies and also the relationship between the drainage site and pain should be investigated.

Results

The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after one month (except for obscure pain) with a significance of < 0.05.

Patients and Methods

This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients.

Background

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed.

Conclusions

In this study, the authors analyzed the location and disturbance level of pain after LGBP, which could serve as a cornerstone for further researches. The authors suggest that long-term follow-up (for more than a year after operation) should be considered in future studies and also the relationship between the drainage site and pain should be investigated.

Results

The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after one month (except for obscure pain) with a significance of < 0.05.

Patients and Methods

This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients.

Background

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed.

Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive;Abdominal Pain;LGBP Protein Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive;Abdominal Pain;LGBP Protein http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=13110 Mohammad Eidy Mohammad Eidy Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Abdolreza Pazouki Abdolreza Pazouki Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Hazrat Rasoul Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: + 98-2166555447 Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Hazrat Rasoul Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: + 98-2166555447 Fahimeh Raygan Fahimeh Raygan Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Yazdan Ariyazand Yazdan Ariyazand Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohadeseh Pishgahroudsari Mohadeseh Pishgahroudsari Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fatemeh Jesmi Fatemeh Jesmi Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/atr.15892 Agreement of Cerebral State Index and Glasgow Coma Scale in Brain-Injured Patients Agreement of Cerebral State Index and Glasgow Coma Scale in Brain-Injured Patients research-article research-article Background

Variables derived from electroencephalogram like cerebral state index (CSI) have been used to monitor the anesthesia depth during general anesthesia. Observed evidences show such variables have also been used as a detector of brain death or outcome predictor in traumatic brain-injured (TBI) patients.

Objectives

The current study was designed to determine the correlation between Glasgow coma score (GCS) and CSI among TBI patients.

Patients and Methods

In 60 brain-injured patients who did not need and receive sedatives, GCS and CSI were daily measured during the first ten days of their hospital stay. Correlation between GCS and CSI was studied using the Pearson's correlation test. The Gamma agreement coefficient was also calculated between the two variables for the first day of hospitalization.

Results

A significant correlation coefficient of 0.611-0.796 was observed between CSI and GCS in a ten-day period of the study (P < 0.001). Gamma agreement coefficient was 0.79 ( P < 0.001) for CSI and GCS for the first day of hospitalization. An increased daily correlation was observed in both CSI and GCS values. However, this increase was less significant in CSI compared with the GCS.

Conclusions

A statistically significant correlation and agreement was found between GCS and CSI in the brain-injured patients and GCS was also found to be more consistent and reliable compared with CSI.

Background

Variables derived from electroencephalogram like cerebral state index (CSI) have been used to monitor the anesthesia depth during general anesthesia. Observed evidences show such variables have also been used as a detector of brain death or outcome predictor in traumatic brain-injured (TBI) patients.

Objectives

The current study was designed to determine the correlation between Glasgow coma score (GCS) and CSI among TBI patients.

Patients and Methods

In 60 brain-injured patients who did not need and receive sedatives, GCS and CSI were daily measured during the first ten days of their hospital stay. Correlation between GCS and CSI was studied using the Pearson's correlation test. The Gamma agreement coefficient was also calculated between the two variables for the first day of hospitalization.

Results

A significant correlation coefficient of 0.611-0.796 was observed between CSI and GCS in a ten-day period of the study (P < 0.001). Gamma agreement coefficient was 0.79 ( P < 0.001) for CSI and GCS for the first day of hospitalization. An increased daily correlation was observed in both CSI and GCS values. However, this increase was less significant in CSI compared with the GCS.

Conclusions

A statistically significant correlation and agreement was found between GCS and CSI in the brain-injured patients and GCS was also found to be more consistent and reliable compared with CSI.

Cerebrum;Glasgow Coma Scale;Brain Injury Cerebrum;Glasgow Coma Scale;Brain Injury http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=15892 Mehrdad Mahdian Mehrdad Mahdian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Fazel Mohammad Reza Fazel Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9132760380. Fax: +98-3615558883 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9132760380. Fax: +98-3615558883 Esmaeil Fakharian Esmaeil Fakharian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Hossein Akbari Hossein Akbari Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Soroush Mahdian Soroush Mahdian Student Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran Soheila Yadollahi Soheila Yadollahi Shahid-Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Shahid-Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran
en 10.5812/atr.17850 The Reliability of Red Flags in Spinal Cord Compression The Reliability of Red Flags in Spinal Cord Compression research-article research-article Conclusions

The predictive value of the two statistically significant red flags only marginally raises the clinical suspicion of spinal cord or cauda equina compression. Effective risk stratification of patients presenting to the ED with acute back pain is crucial; however, this study did not support the use of these red flags in their current form.

Patients and Methods

It was a retrospective cohort study of 206 patients with acute back pain admitted from the ED. The presence or absence of the red flag symptoms was assessed against evidence of spinal cord or cauda equina compression on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Results

Overall, 32 (15.5%) patients had compression on MRI. Profound lower limb neurologic examination did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with this finding. The likelihood ratio (LR) for bowel and bladder dysfunction (sensitivity of 0.65 and specificity of 0.73) was 2.45. Saddle sensory disturbance (sensitivity of 0.27 and specificity of 0.87) had a LR of 2.11. When both symptoms were taken together (sensitivity of 0.27 and specificity of 0.92), they gave a LR of 3.46.

Background

Acute low back pain is a common cause for presentation to the emergency department (ED). Since benign etiologies account for 95% of cases, red flags are used to identify sinister causes that require prompt management.

Objectives

We assessed the effectiveness of red flag signs used in the ED to identify spinal cord and cauda equine compression.

Conclusions

The predictive value of the two statistically significant red flags only marginally raises the clinical suspicion of spinal cord or cauda equina compression. Effective risk stratification of patients presenting to the ED with acute back pain is crucial; however, this study did not support the use of these red flags in their current form.

Patients and Methods

It was a retrospective cohort study of 206 patients with acute back pain admitted from the ED. The presence or absence of the red flag symptoms was assessed against evidence of spinal cord or cauda equina compression on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Results

Overall, 32 (15.5%) patients had compression on MRI. Profound lower limb neurologic examination did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with this finding. The likelihood ratio (LR) for bowel and bladder dysfunction (sensitivity of 0.65 and specificity of 0.73) was 2.45. Saddle sensory disturbance (sensitivity of 0.27 and specificity of 0.87) had a LR of 2.11. When both symptoms were taken together (sensitivity of 0.27 and specificity of 0.92), they gave a LR of 3.46.

Background

Acute low back pain is a common cause for presentation to the emergency department (ED). Since benign etiologies account for 95% of cases, red flags are used to identify sinister causes that require prompt management.

Objectives

We assessed the effectiveness of red flag signs used in the ED to identify spinal cord and cauda equine compression.

Cauda Equina;Spinal Cord Compression;Low Back Pain Cauda Equina;Spinal Cord Compression;Low Back Pain http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=17850 Nicholas Tobias Johannes Raison Nicholas Tobias Johannes Raison Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England.; Department of Orthopaedics, St Peter’s Hospital, Chertsey, KT16 0PZ, London, England. Tel: +44-2086479975 Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England.; Department of Orthopaedics, St Peter’s Hospital, Chertsey, KT16 0PZ, London, England. Tel: +44-2086479975 Wisam Alwan Wisam Alwan Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England. Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England. Amit Abbot Amit Abbot Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England. Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England. Mohamed Farook Mohamed Farook Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England. Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England. Arshad Khaleel Arshad Khaleel Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England. Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter’s NHS Trust, London, England.
en 10.5812/atr.16003 Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation research-article research-article Conclusions

Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted.

Background

The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature.

Objectives

In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale.

Results

The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58).

Conclusions

Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted.

Background

The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature.

Objectives

In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale.

Results

The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58).

Activities of Daily Living;Veterans;Brody Myopathy Activities of Daily Living;Veterans;Brody Myopathy http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=16003 Amir Reza Kachooei Amir Reza Kachooei Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mohamad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh Mohamad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. P. O. Box: 91799-9199, Tel/ Fax: +98-5118417453 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran. P. O. Box: 91799-9199, Tel/ Fax: +98-5118417453 Mohamad Hallaj Moghadam Mohamad Hallaj Moghadam Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Asieh-sadat Fattahi Asieh-sadat Fattahi Endoscopic and Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Endoscopic and Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Shiva Razi Shiva Razi Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Maryam Salehi Maryam Salehi Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Hasan Azema Hasan Azema Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/atr.18127 Traumatic Dental Injuries Among 12-15-Year-Old-School Children in Panchkula Traumatic Dental Injuries Among 12-15-Year-Old-School Children in Panchkula research-article research-article Background:

Traumatic dental injury (TDI) in children and adolescents has become one of the most serious dental public health problems. Despite such a high prevalence of dental trauma, very less attention has been paid to TDI, its etiology, and prevention.

Objectives:

To determine the prevalence of anterior tooth traumatic dental injuries in 12-15-year-old school children of Panchkula district, India, and to find any correlation with the cause, gender, extent of overbite as well as over-jet, and previous treatment.

Patients and Methods:

A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana, was selected. The children were screened using WHO criteria for oral examination and a trained dental surgeon examined the children. Those with clinical TDI were examined further for the type of traumatic injuries using Elis classification modified by Holland. Overjet and overbite were recorded. After examination, questions regarding the cause of trauma and its treatment were asked. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi square and Mantel-Haenszel tests by SPSS version 20.0.

Results:

The results showed that out of 810 children, 86 (10.2 %) had TDI. Males had higher prevalence of trauma than females (P < 0.05). The common cause of trauma was fall (51.11%) followed by sports injuries (41.86%). Enamel-dentin fracture without pulpal involvement was the most common type of trauma and the most frequent involved teeth were maxillary central incisors. A significant association was observed between overjet and overbite and trauma. Only 3.5% of the children affected with trauma had received treatment.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of traumatic injuries to permanent incisors in 12-15-year-old Panchkula school children was relatively high. TDI was associated with gender, overjet, and lip competence. There was a great unmet treatment need.

Background:

Traumatic dental injury (TDI) in children and adolescents has become one of the most serious dental public health problems. Despite such a high prevalence of dental trauma, very less attention has been paid to TDI, its etiology, and prevention.

Objectives:

To determine the prevalence of anterior tooth traumatic dental injuries in 12-15-year-old school children of Panchkula district, India, and to find any correlation with the cause, gender, extent of overbite as well as over-jet, and previous treatment.

Patients and Methods:

A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana, was selected. The children were screened using WHO criteria for oral examination and a trained dental surgeon examined the children. Those with clinical TDI were examined further for the type of traumatic injuries using Elis classification modified by Holland. Overjet and overbite were recorded. After examination, questions regarding the cause of trauma and its treatment were asked. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi square and Mantel-Haenszel tests by SPSS version 20.0.

Results:

The results showed that out of 810 children, 86 (10.2 %) had TDI. Males had higher prevalence of trauma than females (P < 0.05). The common cause of trauma was fall (51.11%) followed by sports injuries (41.86%). Enamel-dentin fracture without pulpal involvement was the most common type of trauma and the most frequent involved teeth were maxillary central incisors. A significant association was observed between overjet and overbite and trauma. Only 3.5% of the children affected with trauma had received treatment.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of traumatic injuries to permanent incisors in 12-15-year-old Panchkula school children was relatively high. TDI was associated with gender, overjet, and lip competence. There was a great unmet treatment need.

Dental Occlusion, Traumatic;Prevalence;Risk Factors Dental Occlusion, Traumatic;Prevalence;Risk Factors http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18127 Amandeep Chopra Amandeep Chopra Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India; Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Golpura, Barwala, District Panchkula, Haryana, India. Tel: +91-9017776033 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India; Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Golpura, Barwala, District Panchkula, Haryana, India. Tel: +91-9017776033 Manav Lakhanpal Manav Lakhanpal Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India NC Rao NC Rao Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India Nidhi Gupta Nidhi Gupta Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India Shelja Vashisth Shelja Vashisth Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India Department of Public Health Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, Haryana, India
en 10.5812/atr.19125 The Path of Science The Path of Science editorial editorial Trauma Trauma http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19125 Esmaeil Fakharian Esmaeil Fakharian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131614294, Fax: +98-3615551112 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131614294, Fax: +98-3615551112
en 10.5812/atr.18608 Validity and Reliability of Behavioral Pain Scale in Patients With Low Level of Consciousness Due to Head Trauma Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit Validity and Reliability of Behavioral Pain Scale in Patients With Low Level of Consciousness Due to Head Trauma Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit research-article research-article Background:

Estimating pain in patients of intensive care unit (ICU) is essential, but because of their special situation, verbal scales cannot be used. Therefore, to estimate the level of pain, behavioral pain scale was developed by Payen in 2001.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of behavioral pain scale in patients with low level of consciousness due to head trauma hospitalized in ICU.

Patients and Methods:

This descriptive prospective study was performed in Yazd in 2013. In this study, fifty patients, including thirteen women and thirty seven men, were involved. To collect the data a questionnaire including demographic and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) information as well as a list of behavioral pain scale (BPS) were used. SPSS software (version 18) was used to analyze the data.

Results:

There was no significant difference in reliability proving of average score of BPS recorded by two day and night assessors (P > 5). Cronbach’s alpha was 85 for painful procedures and 76 for non-painful procedures. In addition, known groups’ technique (painful and non-painful procedures) was used to assess validity. The average scores were 7.75 during painful procedures and 3.28 during non-painful procedures (P = 0.001). The results stated that BPS scores during these two procedures were significantly different.

Conclusions:

BPS in patients with low level of consciousness due to head trauma has strong reliability and validity. Therefore, this scale can be used for patients hospitalized in ICU to assess the level of pain.

Background:

Estimating pain in patients of intensive care unit (ICU) is essential, but because of their special situation, verbal scales cannot be used. Therefore, to estimate the level of pain, behavioral pain scale was developed by Payen in 2001.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of behavioral pain scale in patients with low level of consciousness due to head trauma hospitalized in ICU.

Patients and Methods:

This descriptive prospective study was performed in Yazd in 2013. In this study, fifty patients, including thirteen women and thirty seven men, were involved. To collect the data a questionnaire including demographic and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) information as well as a list of behavioral pain scale (BPS) were used. SPSS software (version 18) was used to analyze the data.

Results:

There was no significant difference in reliability proving of average score of BPS recorded by two day and night assessors (P > 5). Cronbach’s alpha was 85 for painful procedures and 76 for non-painful procedures. In addition, known groups’ technique (painful and non-painful procedures) was used to assess validity. The average scores were 7.75 during painful procedures and 3.28 during non-painful procedures (P = 0.001). The results stated that BPS scores during these two procedures were significantly different.

Conclusions:

BPS in patients with low level of consciousness due to head trauma has strong reliability and validity. Therefore, this scale can be used for patients hospitalized in ICU to assess the level of pain.

Pain;Unconsciousness;Reproducibility of Results Pain;Unconsciousness;Reproducibility of Results http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18608 Hamideh Dehghani Hamideh Dehghani Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131563288, Fax: +98-3518249705 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131563288, Fax: +98-3518249705 Hossein Tavangar Hossein Tavangar Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Akram Ghandehari Akram Ghandehari Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, IR Iran