Archives of Trauma Research Archives of Trauma Research Arch Trauma Res http://www.archtrauma.com 2251-953X 2251-9599 10.5812/atr. en jalali 2018 1 23 gregorian 2018 1 23 4 2
en 26101760 10.5812/atr.4(2)2015.20969 Validation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules in Indian Scenario Validation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules in Indian Scenario research-article research-article Background

Ankle injuries are one of the most common presentations in emergency department. Ottawa Ankle Rules (OARs) have been used to predict the requirement of radiographs.

Objectives

This study aimed to validate the OARs protocol for predicting ankle and midfoot fractures in Indian population.

Patients and Methods

A prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in north India, during a period of nine months, including all patients who presented with complaints in the ankle region and evolution of less than 48 hours. The study excluded patients with multiple trauma and Glasgow coma scale of less than 15. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, followed by radiographs depending upon the location of the complaints. Radiographic study results were evaluated by orthopedic surgeons who had not seen the patient.

Results

We evaluated 140 patients (84 males and 60 females) with the mean age of 35.2 (range, 8 - 76 years). Of the 140 evaluable patients, 71 had positive criteria for radiological evaluation of which 43 presented with fracture, 69 had negative criteria for radiography with no fracture. The sensitivity of OARs to detect fractures was 100%. The implementation of the OARs appears to have the potential to reduce the number of radiographs for the assessment of these patients by about 51%.

Conclusions

The implementations of OARs have the potential to reduce the number of X-ray graphics needed to assess these patients by about 51%. The results of this study demonstrate no false negatives and are in agreement with results from other similar studies. It encourages us to implement these criteria in our services urgently, with all the resulting socio-economic implications.

Background

Ankle injuries are one of the most common presentations in emergency department. Ottawa Ankle Rules (OARs) have been used to predict the requirement of radiographs.

Objectives

This study aimed to validate the OARs protocol for predicting ankle and midfoot fractures in Indian population.

Patients and Methods

A prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in north India, during a period of nine months, including all patients who presented with complaints in the ankle region and evolution of less than 48 hours. The study excluded patients with multiple trauma and Glasgow coma scale of less than 15. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, followed by radiographs depending upon the location of the complaints. Radiographic study results were evaluated by orthopedic surgeons who had not seen the patient.

Results

We evaluated 140 patients (84 males and 60 females) with the mean age of 35.2 (range, 8 - 76 years). Of the 140 evaluable patients, 71 had positive criteria for radiological evaluation of which 43 presented with fracture, 69 had negative criteria for radiography with no fracture. The sensitivity of OARs to detect fractures was 100%. The implementation of the OARs appears to have the potential to reduce the number of radiographs for the assessment of these patients by about 51%.

Conclusions

The implementations of OARs have the potential to reduce the number of X-ray graphics needed to assess these patients by about 51%. The results of this study demonstrate no false negatives and are in agreement with results from other similar studies. It encourages us to implement these criteria in our services urgently, with all the resulting socio-economic implications.

Ottawa Ankle Rules;Injury;Fracture Ottawa Ankle Rules;Injury;Fracture http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20969 Sanjay Meena Sanjay Meena Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India; Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. Tel: +91-9968444612 Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India; Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. Tel: +91-9968444612 Shreesh Kumar Gangary Shreesh Kumar Gangary Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
en 10.5812/atr.4(2)2015.28465 Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013 Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013 research-article research-article Conclusions

Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively.

Patients and Methods

During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results

A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1) were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group.

Background

Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran.

Conclusions

Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively.

Patients and Methods

During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results

A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1) were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group.

Background

Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran.

Accidents;Epidemiology;Injury;Traffic Accidents;Epidemiology;Injury;Traffic http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28465 Mehrdad Mahdian Mehrdad Mahdian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mojtaba Sehat Mojtaba Sehat Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3155620634 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3155620634 Mohammad Reza Fazel Mohammad Reza Fazel Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Alireza Moraveji Alireza Moraveji Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mahdi Mohammadzadeh Mahdi Mohammadzadeh Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran
en 26101763 10.5812/atr.4(2)2015.27046 Intraarticular Entrapment of Os Subfibulare Following a Severe Inversion Injury of the Ankle: A Case Report Intraarticular Entrapment of Os Subfibulare Following a Severe Inversion Injury of the Ankle: A Case Report case-report case-report Introduction

Anterior Talofibular Ligament (ATFL) rupture is the most commonly injured anatomic structure in lateral ankle sprain. In some cases, ATFL avulsion fracture from the lateral malleolus may occur instead of purely ligamentous injuries. The ATFL avulsion fracture is detected as a small ossicle at the tip of lateral malleolus on direct radiographs, which is called os subfibulare in chronic cases.

Conclusions

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of entrapment of os subfibulare in the talotibial joint space. Fixation of the os subfibulare to lateral malleolus resulted in union and excellent functional results.

Case Presentation

Severe displacement of this ossicle to the tibiotalar joint space is an extremely rare injury. Herein, a case of intra-articular entrapment of os subfibulare following a severe inversion injury of the ankle, which caused a diagnostic challenge was presented.

Introduction

Anterior Talofibular Ligament (ATFL) rupture is the most commonly injured anatomic structure in lateral ankle sprain. In some cases, ATFL avulsion fracture from the lateral malleolus may occur instead of purely ligamentous injuries. The ATFL avulsion fracture is detected as a small ossicle at the tip of lateral malleolus on direct radiographs, which is called os subfibulare in chronic cases.

Conclusions

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of entrapment of os subfibulare in the talotibial joint space. Fixation of the os subfibulare to lateral malleolus resulted in union and excellent functional results.

Case Presentation

Severe displacement of this ossicle to the tibiotalar joint space is an extremely rare injury. Herein, a case of intra-articular entrapment of os subfibulare following a severe inversion injury of the ankle, which caused a diagnostic challenge was presented.

Anterior Talofibular Ligament;Os Subfibulare;Ankle Sprain Anterior Talofibular Ligament;Os Subfibulare;Ankle Sprain http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27046 Ozkan Kose Ozkan Kose Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey; Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5326422612, Fax: +90-2422494400 Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey; Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5326422612, Fax: +90-2422494400 Omer Faruk Kilicaslan Omer Faruk Kilicaslan Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey Ferhat Guler Ferhat Guler Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey Cemil Aktan Cemil Aktan Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey
en 26101764 10.5812/atr.4(2)2015.27123 Predictors for Readmission up to 1 Year Following Hip Fracture Predictors for Readmission up to 1 Year Following Hip Fracture research-article research-article Background

At Altnagelvin, a district general hospital in Northern Ireland, we have observed that a significant number of hip fracture admissions are later readmitted for treatment of other medical conditions. These readmissions place increasing stress on the already significant burden that orthopedic trauma poses on national health services.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to review a series of consecutive patients managed at our unit at least 1 year prior to the onset of the study. Also, we aimed to identify predictors for raised admission rates following treatment for hip fracture.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed a prospective fracture database and online patient note system for patient details, past medical history, discharge destination and routine blood tests for any factors that may influence readmission rates up to 1 year. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results

Over 2 years, 451 patients were reviewed and 23 were managed conservatively. There was a 1-year readmission rate of 21%. Most readmission diagnoses were medical including bronchopneumonia, falls, urosepsis, cardiac exacerbations and stroke. Prolonged length of stay and discharge to a residential, fold or nursing home were found to increase readmission rate. Readmission diagnoses closely reflected the perioperative diagnoses that prolonged length of stay. Increased odds radio and risk of readmission were also found with female gender, surgery with a cephalomedullary nail, hip hemiarthroplasty or total hip replacement, time to surgery < 36 hours, alcohol consumption, smoking status, Hb drop > 2 g/dL and also if a blood transfusion was received.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that hip fracture treatment begins at acute fracture clerk in, with consideration of comorbid status and ultimate discharge planning remaining significant predictors for morbidity and subsequent readmission.

Background

At Altnagelvin, a district general hospital in Northern Ireland, we have observed that a significant number of hip fracture admissions are later readmitted for treatment of other medical conditions. These readmissions place increasing stress on the already significant burden that orthopedic trauma poses on national health services.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to review a series of consecutive patients managed at our unit at least 1 year prior to the onset of the study. Also, we aimed to identify predictors for raised admission rates following treatment for hip fracture.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed a prospective fracture database and online patient note system for patient details, past medical history, discharge destination and routine blood tests for any factors that may influence readmission rates up to 1 year. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results

Over 2 years, 451 patients were reviewed and 23 were managed conservatively. There was a 1-year readmission rate of 21%. Most readmission diagnoses were medical including bronchopneumonia, falls, urosepsis, cardiac exacerbations and stroke. Prolonged length of stay and discharge to a residential, fold or nursing home were found to increase readmission rate. Readmission diagnoses closely reflected the perioperative diagnoses that prolonged length of stay. Increased odds radio and risk of readmission were also found with female gender, surgery with a cephalomedullary nail, hip hemiarthroplasty or total hip replacement, time to surgery < 36 hours, alcohol consumption, smoking status, Hb drop > 2 g/dL and also if a blood transfusion was received.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that hip fracture treatment begins at acute fracture clerk in, with consideration of comorbid status and ultimate discharge planning remaining significant predictors for morbidity and subsequent readmission.

Hip Fracture;Readmission;Femoral Fracture Hip Fracture;Readmission;Femoral Fracture http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27123 Gavin John Heyes Gavin John Heyes Department of Orthopedics, Musgrave Park Hospital, Stockman’s Lane Belfast, Northern Ireland; Department of Orthopedics, Musgrave Park Hospital, Stockman’s Lane Belfast, Northern Ireland. Tel: +44-7823333140 Department of Orthopedics, Musgrave Park Hospital, Stockman’s Lane Belfast, Northern Ireland; Department of Orthopedics, Musgrave Park Hospital, Stockman’s Lane Belfast, Northern Ireland. Tel: +44-7823333140 Adam Tucker Adam Tucker Department of Trauma and Orthopedics, Altnagelvin Hospital, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland Department of Trauma and Orthopedics, Altnagelvin Hospital, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland Dominic Marley Dominic Marley Department of Trauma and Orthopedics, Altnagelvin Hospital, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland Department of Trauma and Orthopedics, Altnagelvin Hospital, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland Andrew Foster Andrew Foster Department of Trauma and Orthopedics, Altnagelvin Hospital, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland Department of Trauma and Orthopedics, Altnagelvin Hospital, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland
en 26101762 10.5812/atr.4(2)2015.24622 Tangential View and Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Fluoroscopy for the Detection of Screw-Misplacements in Volar Plating of Distal Radius Fractures Tangential View and Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Fluoroscopy for the Detection of Screw-Misplacements in Volar Plating of Distal Radius Fractures research-article research-article Conclusions

We recommend the additional 2D-fluoroscopic tangential view for detection of screw misplacements caused by overlength, with penetration on the dorsal cortical surface of the distal radius, predominantly observed for the most lateral screw position. The use of intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy did not become accepted in our clinical routine, due to the technical demanding and time consuming procedure, with a limited image quality so far.

Results

In the standard 2D-fluoroscopic views (postero-anterior and true lateral projection), 22 screw misplacements of 232 inserted screws were not detected. Based on the additional tangential view, 12 screws were exchanged, followed by further 10 screws after performing the 3D fluoroscopic scan. The most lateral screw position had the highest risk for screw misplacement (accounting for 45.5% of all exchanged screws). The mean number of images for the tangential view was 3 ± 2.5 images. The mean surgical time was extended by 10.02 ± 3.82 minutes for the 3D fluoroscopic scan. An additional radiation exposure of 4.4 ± 4.5seconds, with a dose area product of 39.2 ± 14.5 cGy/cm2 were necessary for the tangential view and 54.4 ± 20.9 seconds with a dose area product of 2.1 ± 2.2 cGy/cm2, for the 3D fluoroscopic scan.

Objectives

The following questions should be answered in this study; 1) Are the additional tangential view and the intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy useful in the clinical routine to detect persistent fracture dislocations and screw misplacements, to prevent revision surgery? 2) Which is the most dangerous plate hole for screw misplacement?

Patients and Methods

A total of 48 patients (36 females and 13 males) with 49 unstable distal radius fractures (22 x 23 A; 2 x 23 B, and 25 x 23 C) were treated with a 2.4 mm variable angle LCP Two-Column volar distal radius plate (Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) during a 10-month period. After final fixation, according to the manufactures' technique guide and control of implant placement in the two common perpendicular 2D-fluoroscopic images (postero-anterior and true lateral), an additional tangential view and intraoperative 3D fluoroscopic scan were performed to control the anatomic fracture reduction and screw placements. Intraoperative revision rates due to screw misplacements (intra-articular or overlength) were evaluated. Additionally, the number of surgeons, time and radiation-exposure, for each step of the operating procedure, were recorded.

Background

Volar locking plate fixation has become the gold standard in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. Juxta-articular screws should be placed as close as possible to the subchondral zone, in an optimized length to buttress the articular surface and address the contralateral cortical bone. On the other hand, intra-articular screw misplacements will promote osteoarthritis, while the penetration of the contralateral bone surface may result in tendon irritations and ruptures. The intraoperative control of fracture reduction and implant positioning is limited in the common postero-anterior and true lateral two-dimensional (2D)-fluoroscopic views. Therefore, additional 2D-fluoroscopic views in different projections and intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) fluoroscopy were recently reported. Nevertheless, their utility has issued controversies.

Conclusions

We recommend the additional 2D-fluoroscopic tangential view for detection of screw misplacements caused by overlength, with penetration on the dorsal cortical surface of the distal radius, predominantly observed for the most lateral screw position. The use of intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy did not become accepted in our clinical routine, due to the technical demanding and time consuming procedure, with a limited image quality so far.

Results

In the standard 2D-fluoroscopic views (postero-anterior and true lateral projection), 22 screw misplacements of 232 inserted screws were not detected. Based on the additional tangential view, 12 screws were exchanged, followed by further 10 screws after performing the 3D fluoroscopic scan. The most lateral screw position had the highest risk for screw misplacement (accounting for 45.5% of all exchanged screws). The mean number of images for the tangential view was 3 ± 2.5 images. The mean surgical time was extended by 10.02 ± 3.82 minutes for the 3D fluoroscopic scan. An additional radiation exposure of 4.4 ± 4.5seconds, with a dose area product of 39.2 ± 14.5 cGy/cm2 were necessary for the tangential view and 54.4 ± 20.9 seconds with a dose area product of 2.1 ± 2.2 cGy/cm2, for the 3D fluoroscopic scan.

Objectives

The following questions should be answered in this study; 1) Are the additional tangential view and the intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy useful in the clinical routine to detect persistent fracture dislocations and screw misplacements, to prevent revision surgery? 2) Which is the most dangerous plate hole for screw misplacement?

Patients and Methods

A total of 48 patients (36 females and 13 males) with 49 unstable distal radius fractures (22 x 23 A; 2 x 23 B, and 25 x 23 C) were treated with a 2.4 mm variable angle LCP Two-Column volar distal radius plate (Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) during a 10-month period. After final fixation, according to the manufactures' technique guide and control of implant placement in the two common perpendicular 2D-fluoroscopic images (postero-anterior and true lateral), an additional tangential view and intraoperative 3D fluoroscopic scan were performed to control the anatomic fracture reduction and screw placements. Intraoperative revision rates due to screw misplacements (intra-articular or overlength) were evaluated. Additionally, the number of surgeons, time and radiation-exposure, for each step of the operating procedure, were recorded.

Background

Volar locking plate fixation has become the gold standard in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. Juxta-articular screws should be placed as close as possible to the subchondral zone, in an optimized length to buttress the articular surface and address the contralateral cortical bone. On the other hand, intra-articular screw misplacements will promote osteoarthritis, while the penetration of the contralateral bone surface may result in tendon irritations and ruptures. The intraoperative control of fracture reduction and implant positioning is limited in the common postero-anterior and true lateral two-dimensional (2D)-fluoroscopic views. Therefore, additional 2D-fluoroscopic views in different projections and intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) fluoroscopy were recently reported. Nevertheless, their utility has issued controversies.

Distal Radius Fracture;Intraoperative;Imaging;Screw Penetration;Doenicke View Distal Radius Fracture;Intraoperative;Imaging;Screw Penetration;Doenicke View http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24622 Sascha Rausch Sascha Rausch Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany; Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany. Tel: +49-36419322889, Fax: +49-36419322802 Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany; Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany. Tel: +49-36419322889, Fax: +49-36419322802 Ivan Marintschev Ivan Marintschev Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Isabel Graul Isabel Graul Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Arne Wilharm Arne Wilharm Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Kajetan Klos Kajetan Klos Foot and Ankle Department, Catholic Medical Center, Mainz, Germany Foot and Ankle Department, Catholic Medical Center, Mainz, Germany Gunther O. Hofmann Gunther O. Hofmann Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany; Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannstrost Halle, Halle, Germany Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany; Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannstrost Halle, Halle, Germany Marc Florian Gras Marc Florian Gras Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Trauma Department, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany
en 26101761 10.5812/atr.4(2)2015.20977 Comparing Cognitive Failures and Metacognitive Beliefs in Mild Traumatic Brain Injured Patients and Normal Controls in Kashan Comparing Cognitive Failures and Metacognitive Beliefs in Mild Traumatic Brain Injured Patients and Normal Controls in Kashan research-article research-article Patients and Methods

The study was performed on 40 TBI patients referred to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan city and 40 normal controls in Kashan. Traumatic brain injured patients and normal controls were selected by convenience sampling. Two groups filled out the demographic sheet, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30). The data were analyzed by the SPSS-19 software with multivariate analysis of variance.

Conclusions

Based on these findings, it seems that mild brain injuries don't make significant metacognitive problems and cognitive failures.

Results

The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between TBI and controls in total scores and subscales of CFQ and MCQ (F = 0.801, P = 0.61).

Objectives

This study aimed to compare cognitive failures and metacognitive beliefs in mild Traumatic Brain Injured (TBI) patients and normal controls in Kashan.

Background

Head trauma is associated with multiple destructive cognitive symptoms and cognitive failure. Cognitive failures include problems with memory, attention and operation. Cognitive failures are considered as a process associated with metacognition.

Patients and Methods

The study was performed on 40 TBI patients referred to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan city and 40 normal controls in Kashan. Traumatic brain injured patients and normal controls were selected by convenience sampling. Two groups filled out the demographic sheet, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30). The data were analyzed by the SPSS-19 software with multivariate analysis of variance.

Conclusions

Based on these findings, it seems that mild brain injuries don't make significant metacognitive problems and cognitive failures.

Results

The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between TBI and controls in total scores and subscales of CFQ and MCQ (F = 0.801, P = 0.61).

Objectives

This study aimed to compare cognitive failures and metacognitive beliefs in mild Traumatic Brain Injured (TBI) patients and normal controls in Kashan.

Background

Head trauma is associated with multiple destructive cognitive symptoms and cognitive failure. Cognitive failures include problems with memory, attention and operation. Cognitive failures are considered as a process associated with metacognition.

Cognition;Brain Injury;Memory Cognition;Brain Injury;Memory http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20977 Fatemeh Zargar Fatemeh Zargar Department of Clinical Psychology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Department of Clinical Psychology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Abolfazl Mohammadi Abolfazl Mohammadi Department of Psychiatry, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, IR Iran Department of Psychiatry, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, IR Iran Elham Shafiei Elham Shafiei Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3155540021 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3155540021 Esmaeil Fakharian Esmaeil Fakharian Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran
en 26401491 10.5812/atr.12039v2 The Effect of Skin Traction on Preoperative Pain and Need for Analgesics in Patients With Intertrochanteric Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial The Effect of Skin Traction on Preoperative Pain and Need for Analgesics in Patients With Intertrochanteric Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

Although skin traction had no effect on analgesic consumption, it significantly decreased the pain at the end of the first day. The application of skin traction in patients with intertrochanteric fractures is recommended.

Results

The severity of pain was significantly decreased in skin traction group only at the end of the first day after traction application (2.7 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9; P = 0.042), while there was no significant difference between the two groups in other pain measurements. The number of requests for analgesics was the same between the two groups.

Background

Preoperative skin traction is applied for many patients with hip fracture. However, the efficacy of this modality in pain relief is controversial.

Objectives

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of skin traction on pain in patients with intertrochanteric fractures.

Patients and Methods

A total of 40 patients contributed in this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups: the skin traction (3 kg) and control groups. The severity of pain was recorded at admission and 30 minutes, one, six, 12, and 24 hours after skin traction application utilizing a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In addition, the number of requests for analgesics was recorded. Finally, the mean severity of pain in each measurement and the mean number of analgesic requests were compared between the two groups.

Conclusions

Although skin traction had no effect on analgesic consumption, it significantly decreased the pain at the end of the first day. The application of skin traction in patients with intertrochanteric fractures is recommended.

Results

The severity of pain was significantly decreased in skin traction group only at the end of the first day after traction application (2.7 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9; P = 0.042), while there was no significant difference between the two groups in other pain measurements. The number of requests for analgesics was the same between the two groups.

Background

Preoperative skin traction is applied for many patients with hip fracture. However, the efficacy of this modality in pain relief is controversial.

Objectives

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of skin traction on pain in patients with intertrochanteric fractures.

Patients and Methods

A total of 40 patients contributed in this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups: the skin traction (3 kg) and control groups. The severity of pain was recorded at admission and 30 minutes, one, six, 12, and 24 hours after skin traction application utilizing a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In addition, the number of requests for analgesics was recorded. Finally, the mean severity of pain in each measurement and the mean number of analgesic requests were compared between the two groups.

Intertrochanteric Fractures;Skin;Traction;Pain;Visual Analog Scale;Analgesics Intertrochanteric Fractures;Skin;Traction;Pain;Visual Analog Scale;Analgesics http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12039 Alireza Manafi Rasi Alireza Manafi Rasi Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farzad Amoozadeh Farzad Amoozadeh Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Salim Khani Salim Khani Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188328557, Fax: +98-2177569991 Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188328557, Fax: +98-2177569991 Amin Kamrani Rad Amin Kamrani Rad Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ali Sazegar Ali Sazegar Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Orthopedics Surgery Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/atr.29422v2 Role of Anesthesia Team in Prehospital Care: The Hidden Treasure in Critical Settings Role of Anesthesia Team in Prehospital Care: The Hidden Treasure in Critical Settings editorial editorial Prehospital Care;Anesthesia;Trauma;Disaster Prehospital Care;Anesthesia;Trauma;Disaster http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29422 Mohammad Reza Razavizadeh Mohammad Reza Razavizadeh Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9133611014 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9133611014
en 26401492 10.5812/atr.25299v2 Routine Chest Computed Tomography and Patient Outcome in Blunt Trauma Routine Chest Computed Tomography and Patient Outcome in Blunt Trauma research-article research-article Conclusions

Performing the routine chest CT in high-energy blunt trauma patients (with a mean injury severity of 9), although leading to the diagnosis of some occult injuries, has no impact on the outcome and does not decrease the in-hospital stay and ICU admission time. It seems that performing the routine chest CT in these patients may lead to overtreatment of nonsignificant injuries. The decision about performing routine CT scan in a trauma center should be made cautiously, considering the detriments and benefits.

Results

No significant differences were found regarding the demographic data such as age, injury severity and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Thirty-eight percent additional findings were seen in chest CT in 26% of the patients of the group undergoing routine chest CT, leading to 8% change in management. The mean of in-hospital stay showed no significant difference in both groups with a P value of 0.098. In addition, the mean ICU stay and ventilation time revealed no significant differences (P values = 0.102 and 0.576, respectively). Mortality rate and complications were similar in both groups.

Patients and Methods

After approval by the ethics board committee, 100 hemodynamically stable patients with high-energy blunt trauma were randomly divided into two groups. For group one (control group), only chest X-ray was requested and further diagnostic work-up was performed by the decision of the trauma team. For group two, a chest X-ray was ordered followed by a chest CT, even if the chest X-ray was normal. Injury severity, total hospitalization time, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission time, duration of mechanical ventilation and complications were recorded. Data were evaluated using t-test, Man-Whitney and chi-squared test.

Objectives

In view of the considerable radiation exposure and the high costs of CT scan, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of performing the routine chest CT on the outcome as well as complications in patients with blunt trauma.

Background

Computerized Tomography (CT) scan is gaining more importance in the initial evaluation of patients with multiple trauma, but its effect on the outcome is still unclear. Until now, no prospective randomized trial has been performed to define the role of routine chest CT in patients with blunt trauma.

Conclusions

Performing the routine chest CT in high-energy blunt trauma patients (with a mean injury severity of 9), although leading to the diagnosis of some occult injuries, has no impact on the outcome and does not decrease the in-hospital stay and ICU admission time. It seems that performing the routine chest CT in these patients may lead to overtreatment of nonsignificant injuries. The decision about performing routine CT scan in a trauma center should be made cautiously, considering the detriments and benefits.

Results

No significant differences were found regarding the demographic data such as age, injury severity and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Thirty-eight percent additional findings were seen in chest CT in 26% of the patients of the group undergoing routine chest CT, leading to 8% change in management. The mean of in-hospital stay showed no significant difference in both groups with a P value of 0.098. In addition, the mean ICU stay and ventilation time revealed no significant differences (P values = 0.102 and 0.576, respectively). Mortality rate and complications were similar in both groups.

Patients and Methods

After approval by the ethics board committee, 100 hemodynamically stable patients with high-energy blunt trauma were randomly divided into two groups. For group one (control group), only chest X-ray was requested and further diagnostic work-up was performed by the decision of the trauma team. For group two, a chest X-ray was ordered followed by a chest CT, even if the chest X-ray was normal. Injury severity, total hospitalization time, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission time, duration of mechanical ventilation and complications were recorded. Data were evaluated using t-test, Man-Whitney and chi-squared test.

Objectives

In view of the considerable radiation exposure and the high costs of CT scan, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of performing the routine chest CT on the outcome as well as complications in patients with blunt trauma.

Background

Computerized Tomography (CT) scan is gaining more importance in the initial evaluation of patients with multiple trauma, but its effect on the outcome is still unclear. Until now, no prospective randomized trial has been performed to define the role of routine chest CT in patients with blunt trauma.

Trauma;Computerized Tomography Scan;X-Ray;Thorax Trauma;Computerized Tomography Scan;X-Ray;Thorax http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25299 Nushin Moussavi Nushin Moussavi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Abdol Hossein Davoodabadi Abdol Hossein Davoodabadi Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Fatemeh Atoof Fatemeh Atoof Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Seyed Ebrahim Razi Seyed Ebrahim Razi Internal Medicine Department, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Internal Medicine Department, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Mehdi Behnampour Mehdi Behnampour Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Hamid Reza Talari Hamid Reza Talari Radiology Department, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Radiology Department, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-36155540026, Fax: +98-36155548900 Radiology Department, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran; Radiology Department, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-36155540026, Fax: +98-36155548900
en 26101764 10.5812/atr.28013v2 Management of Humeral Shaft Fractures; Non-Operative Versus Operative Management of Humeral Shaft Fractures; Non-Operative Versus Operative review-article review-article Context

Functional humeral bracing remains the gold standard for treatment of humeral shaft fractures. There is an increasing trend in the literature to perform operative fixation of these fractures.

Evidence Acquisition

The aim of this systematic review was to compare the level one evidence for the outcome of non-operative with operative management of humeral shaft fractures in adults. A comprehensive electronic literature search of Medline and PubMed was performed with specific inclusion criteria to identify randomized controlled trials.

Results

In total, seventeen different studies were identified from the search terms and combinations used. Only one study met the inclusion criteria; however, this was a published study protocol of an ongoing trial currently being conducted. One additional published protocol for an ongoing trial was also identified, but this was for a prospective comparative observational study. Although this latter study may not be level one evidence, it would offer great insight into the functional outcome of humeral shaft fractures and economic implications of operative management, which is currently not addressed in the literature. Two retrospective comparative studies were also identified, one of which demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nonunion and malunion in those patients undergoing operative management.

Conclusions

This systematic review demonstrated a deficiency in the current literature of level one evidence available for the management of humeral shaft fractures. The current ongoing randomized control trail would offer a greater insight into the management of humeral shaft fractures and help confirm or refute the current literature. If this randomized control trial affirms the reduction in the rate of nonunion with operative fixation, a cost economic analysis is essential. As it would seem to offer operative management to all patients may be over treatment and not to offer this at all would undertreat.

Context

Functional humeral bracing remains the gold standard for treatment of humeral shaft fractures. There is an increasing trend in the literature to perform operative fixation of these fractures.

Evidence Acquisition

The aim of this systematic review was to compare the level one evidence for the outcome of non-operative with operative management of humeral shaft fractures in adults. A comprehensive electronic literature search of Medline and PubMed was performed with specific inclusion criteria to identify randomized controlled trials.

Results

In total, seventeen different studies were identified from the search terms and combinations used. Only one study met the inclusion criteria; however, this was a published study protocol of an ongoing trial currently being conducted. One additional published protocol for an ongoing trial was also identified, but this was for a prospective comparative observational study. Although this latter study may not be level one evidence, it would offer great insight into the functional outcome of humeral shaft fractures and economic implications of operative management, which is currently not addressed in the literature. Two retrospective comparative studies were also identified, one of which demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nonunion and malunion in those patients undergoing operative management.

Conclusions

This systematic review demonstrated a deficiency in the current literature of level one evidence available for the management of humeral shaft fractures. The current ongoing randomized control trail would offer a greater insight into the management of humeral shaft fractures and help confirm or refute the current literature. If this randomized control trial affirms the reduction in the rate of nonunion with operative fixation, a cost economic analysis is essential. As it would seem to offer operative management to all patients may be over treatment and not to offer this at all would undertreat.

Humeral Shaft Fracture;Review;Disease Management Humeral Shaft Fracture;Review;Disease Management http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28013 Nicholas D. Clement Nicholas D. Clement Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Tel: +44-1312423497, Fax: +44-1312423541 Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Tel: +44-1312423497, Fax: +44-1312423541
en 26401494 10.5812/atr.28954v2 Corrigendum to: Persuasive Discourse Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury [Published in Arch Trauma Res. 2015 March; 4(1): e21473, DOI: 10.5812/atr.21473] Corrigendum to: Persuasive Discourse Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury [Published in Arch Trauma Res. 2015 March; 4(1): e21473, DOI: 10.5812/atr.21473] correction correction http://www.archtrauma.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28954