This Article

Citations


Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Epidemiological Pattern of Bullying Among School Children in Mazandaran Province, Iran


1 School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Hamid Soori, Corresponding author: Hamid Soori, Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-22439980, E-mail:, E-mail: hsoori@yahoo.com.
Archives of Trauma Research. 3(4): e22551 , DOI: 10.5812/atr.22551
Article Type: Research Article; Received: Aug 5, 2014; Revised: Sep 2, 2014; Accepted: Oct 19, 2014; epub: Nov 22, 2014; collection: Nov 2014

Keywords: Crime Victim; bullying; Epidemiology; Adolescent

References


  • 1. Kim YS, Koh YJ, Leventhal BL. Prevalence of school bullying in Korean middle school students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(8):737-41. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 2. Olweus D. . Bullying at school. United States: Wiley-Blackwell; 1993.
  • 3. Nansel TR, Overpeck M, Pilla RS, Ruan WJ, Simons-Morton B, Scheidt P. Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. JAMA. 2001;285(16):2094-100. [PubMed]
  • 4. Yen CF, Yang P, Wang PW, Lin HC, Liu TL, Wu YY, et al. Association between school bullying levels/types and mental health problems among Taiwanese adolescents. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(3):405-13. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 5. Wang J, Iannotti RJ, Nansel TR. School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. J Adolesc Health. 2009;45(4):368-75. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 6. Willard N, JD D. Educator's guide to cyberbullying: Addressing the harm caused by online social cruelty. Retrieved Jul J. 2005;19
  • 7. Panayiotis S, Anna P, Charalambos T, Chrysostomos L. Prevalence of bullying among Cyprus elementary and high school students. Inter J Violence Sch. 2010;11:114-28.
  • 8. McGuinness TM. Dispelling the myth of bullying. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2007;45(10):19-22. [PubMed]
  • 9. Kepenekci YK, Cinkir S. Bullying among Turkish high school students. Child Abuse Negl. 2006;30(2):193-204. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 10. Baldry AC. Bullying among Italian Middle School Students: Combining Methods to Understand Aggressive Behaviours and Victimization. Sch Psy Inter. 1998;19(4):361-74. [DOI]
  • 11. Solberg ME, Olweus D. Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Aggressiv Behav J. 2003;29(3):239-68. [DOI]
  • 12. Hong JS, Espelage DL. A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological systems analysis. Aggr Violent Behav. 2012.
  • 13. Craig W, Harel-Fisch Y, Fogel-Grinvald H, Dostaler S, Hetland J, Simons-Morton B, et al. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. Int J Public Health. 2009;54 Suppl 2:216-24. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 14. Livesey G, McAleavy G, Donegan T, Duffy J, O'Hagan C, Adamson G. The nature and extent of bullying in schools in the North of Ireland. 2007.
  • 15. Greeff P. The nature and prevalence of bullying during the intermediate school phase. Uni Free Stat J. 2004.
  • 16. Hansen TB, Steenberg LM, Palic S, Elklit A. A review of psychological factors related to bullying victimization in schools. Aggres Viol Behav J. 2012;17(4):383-7. [DOI]
  • 17. Nansel TR, Craig W, Overpeck MD, Saluja G, Ruan WJ. Cross-national consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and psychosocial adjustment. Arch Pediatr J. 2004;158(8):730-6.
  • 18. Radliff KM, Wheaton JE, Robinson K, Morris J. Illuminating the relationship between bullying and substance use among middle and high school youth. Addict Behav. 2012;37(4):569-72. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 19. Gini G, Pozzoli T. Association between bullying and psychosomatic problems: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):1059-65. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 20. Dake JA, Price JH, Telljohann SK. The nature and extent of bullying at school. J Sch Health. 2003;73(5):173-80. [PubMed]
  • 21. Rezapour M, Soori H, Khodakarim S. Psychometric Properties of perpetration of Bullying and victimization scales of Olweus Bullying Questionnaire middle schools'students. Safet Promot Res Center J. 2013;1
  • 22. Lee T, Cornell D. Concurrent Validity of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. J Sch Viol. 2009;9(1):56-73. [DOI]
  • 23. Kyriakides L, Kaloyirou C, Lindsay G. An analysis of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire using the Rasch measurement model. Br J Educ Psychol. 2006;76(Pt 4):781-801. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 24. Crothers LM, Levinson M. Assessment of Bullying: A Review of Methods and Instruments. J Counsel Dev . 2004;82(4):496-503. [DOI]
  • 25. Hamburger ME, Basile KC, Vivolo AM. Measuring bullying victimization, perpetration, and bystander experiences: A compendium of assessment tools. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention; 2011.
  • 26. Jimerson SR, Swearer SM, Espelage DL. the Assessment of Bullying. Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective:. Routledg . 2010.
  • 27. Glew GM, Fan MY, Katon W, Rivara FP, Kernic MA. Bullying, psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(11):1026-31. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 28. Khezri H, Ghavam SE, Mofidi F, Delavar A. Bullying and Victimization: Prevalence and Gender Differences in a Sample of Iranian Middle School Students. J Educat Manag Study. 2013;3(3)
  • 29. Siziya S, Rudatsikira E, Muula AS. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia. J Inj Violence Res. 2012;4(1):30-5. [DOI] [PubMed]
  • 30. Baldry AC. Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27(7):713-32. [PubMed]
  • 31. Chabalala OR. The nature and extent of bullying at Hwiti and Mountainview secondary schools, Limpopo Province. University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus); 2011.
  • 32. Vambheim V. Bullying in school: a study of forms and motives of aggression in two secondary schools in the city of Palu, Indonesia. J sch viol. 2010.
  • 33. Porta M. a dictionary of epidemiology. 5 ed. New York: Oxford University; 2008.

Table 1.

Prevalence Rate of Involvement in Different Forms of Bullying Among Middle School Students (n = 834) a

Non Bullying Bully Only Victim Only Victim and Bully
Verbal 70.8 (590) 4.4 (37) 18.1 (151) 6.6 (55)
Relational 81.8 (682) 3.1 (26) 13.0 (107) 2.2 (18)
Physical 86.0 (714) 3.7 (31) 7.6 (64) 2.6 (22)
Others 93.4 (776) 2.2 (19) 3.4 (28) 1.1 (9)
Total 61.5 (513) 5.4 (45) 22.1 (184) 11.0 (92)
a All of the values are present as No. (%).

Table 2.

Rate of Involvement in Each Form of Victimization and Bullies by Gender, Area and Grade (n = 834) a, b

Gender Residential Area Grade of Schooling
Total Female Male P Value Urban Rural P Value 8th Grade 9th Grade P Value
Verbal 24.7 (206) 14.6 (60) 34.6 (146) < 0.001 23.0 (127) 28.1 (79) NS 26.1 (109) 23.3 (97) NS
Relational 15.0 (125) 14.1 (58) 15.9 (67) NS 14.1 (78) 16.7 (47) NS 15.3 (64) 14.7 (61) NS
Physical 10.3 (86) 6.3 (26) 14.2 (60) < 0.001 9.6 (53) 11.7 (33) NS 9.6 (40) 11.0 (46) NS
Others 4.4 (37) 3.2 (13) 5.7 (24) NS 3.6 (20) 6.0 (17) NS 4.6 (19) 4.3 (18) NS
Bullies
Verbal 11.0 (92) 7.3 (30) 14.7 (62) 0.001 8.9 (49) 15.3 (43) 0.005 11.0 (46) 11.1 (46) NS
Relational 5.3 (44) 3.6 (15) 6.9 (29) 0.03 4.3 (24) 7.1 (20) NS 5.5 (23) 5.0 (21) NS
Physical 6.4 (53) 3.2 (13) 9.5 (40) < 0.001 6.1 (34) 6.8 (19) NS 7.2 (30) 5.5 (23) NS
Others 4.6 (38) 2.9 (12) 6.2 (26) 0.006 3.4 (19) 6.8 (19) <.01 4.8 (20) 4.3 (18) NS
a Abbreviation: NS, not significant.
b all of the values are presented as No. (%).

Table 3.

Locations of Bullying Among the Subjects

Place of bullying Total, % Gender Residential area Grade of Schooling
Female Male Urban Rural 8th 9th
Playground/sport field 24.0 7.8 15.4 a 10.8 13.2 13.7 9.6
Hallways/stairwells 10.0 4.9 5.2 5.6 3.9 6.2 3.8
Classroom (when the teacher was available) 7.2 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.3 2.9
Classroom (when the teacher was not available) 13.5 7.3 6.2 7.2 5.7 5.5 7.9
Locker rooms 2.4 1.2 1.2 1.4 0.7 1.2 1.2
Lunch room 1.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1 0.5
On the way to and from school 13.9 4.9 9.0 a 7.8 5.3 7.4 6.5
In the school bus 2.9 2.2 0.7 1.6 1.1 1.9 1
Pray room 3.1 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.8 2.2 0.7
Other Places 14.2 6.6 6.2 4.9 9.3 a 7.7 5
a P value < 0.01.

Table 4.

Relationship of Area, Gender and Grade With the Four Forms of Bullying Using Multinomial Logistic Regressions

Categoriesa Verbal Relational Physical Others Total (Bullying)
OR b CI 95% OR CI 95% OR CI 95% OR CI 95% OR CI 95%
Area (urban)
Bully only 0.68 (0.34-1.35) 0.67 (0.3-1.49) 1.09 (0.5-2.36) 0.32 (0.12-0.83) 1.01 (0.52-1.96)
Victim only 0.92 (0.62-1.36) 0.9 (0.59-1.38) 0.82 (0.48-1.40) 0.42 (0.2-0.9) 0.96 (0.67-1.38)
Both 0.45 (0.26-0.79) 0.5 (0.19-1.28) 0.75 (0.31-1.79) 1.79 (0.37-8.71) 0.42 (0.26-0.66)
Gender (male)
Bully only 1.93 (0.98-1.35) 2.31 (0.99-5.38) 3.88 (1.65-9.12) 3.51 (1.14-10.80) 2.20 (1.17-4.12)
Victim only 3.12 (2.12-4.59) 1.14 (0.76-1.72) 2.60 (1.49-4.55) 1.57 (0.72-3.41) 1.94 (1.38-2.73)
Both 3.51 (1.89-6.50) 1.61 (0.62– 4.22) 2.98 (1.15-7.72) 3.67 (0.76- 17.89) 3.22 (1.96-5.27)
Grade (8th)
Bully only 0.98 (0.5-1.91) 0.85 (0.39-1.87) 1.22 (0.59-2.5) 1.2 (0.46-3.09) 1.31 (0.71-2.43)
Victim only 1.21 (0.83-1.74) 1 (0.66-1.50) 0.74 (0.44-1.25) 0.85 (0.4-1.83) 1.09 (0.78-1.53)
Both 1.05 (0.6-1.85) 1.55 (0.59-4) 1.42 (0.6-3.40) 2.08 (0.51-8.4) 1.06 (0.68-1.68)
a Reference groups for area, gender and grade are rural, girl and grade 9.
b Alpha of 0.05 was used as the significance level.