• Users Online: 7551
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Table of Contents
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 57-86

Risk factors of deaths related to road traffic crashes in World Health Organization regions: A systematic review

1 Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Epidemiology, Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; Department of health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Statistics and Informatics, Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
5 Community Medicine Department, Medical Faculty, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

Date of Submission13-Jul-2019
Date of Acceptance21-Aug-2019
Date of Web Publication07-Oct-2019

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Hamid Soori
Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atr.atr_59_19

Rights and Permissions

Background: Identification of risk factors involved in road traffic deaths (RTDs) could help policymakers and road traffic managers to adopt effective strategies and approaches for the prevention and control of these incidents, while the lack of accurate data on the risk factors of RTDs causes the problem to persist. This systematic review aimed at assessing the national studies regarding the risk factors of RTDs in the regions covered by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods: This review study was conducted during 2008–2018 via searching in databases of PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane, Thomson Reuters, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Trip databases. Initially, a literature review was performed to find similar systematic reviews, followed by another literature review to retrieve the published or registered protocols. At the next stage, PECOTS was developed for the search strategy, followed by the quality assessment. The eligibility criteria in this study were the national-level studies about the risk factors related to RTDs, English-language studies, and studies published during 2008–2018. Results: In total, 169 articles were included in this study, with the highest and lowest number of the published articles in the United States and African countries, respectively. According to the reviewed studies, human factors accounted for the most common risk factors involved in RTDs. In the southeastern regions of Asia, the main road-related risk factor for RTDs was reported to be the type of roads. Furthermore, roadside departure to the right side and long roads were denoted in the national data of the Western Pacific region on the incidence of RTDs. Differences were observed between the six regions covered by the WHO in terms of the time-related risk factors for RTDs. Conclusions: Several risk factors have been reported for RTDs in the countries covered by the WHO, and each risk factor is considered to have various subcategories. Therefore, it could be concluded that there are different epidemiological patterns for road traffic accidents and RTDs.

Keywords: Death, risk factors, road traffic accidents

How to cite this article:
Razzaghi A, Soori H, Kavousi A, Abadi A, Khosravi A, Alipour A. Risk factors of deaths related to road traffic crashes in World Health Organization regions: A systematic review. Arch Trauma Res 2019;8:57-86

How to cite this URL:
Razzaghi A, Soori H, Kavousi A, Abadi A, Khosravi A, Alipour A. Risk factors of deaths related to road traffic crashes in World Health Organization regions: A systematic review. Arch Trauma Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2024 Mar 5];8:57-86. Available from: https://www.archtrauma.com/text.asp?2019/8/2/57/268662

  Introduction Top

Road traffic accidents are considered to be a major health concern and cause of mortality across the world, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Road traffic deaths (RTDs) are reported to be the third leading cause of mortality.[1],[2],[3] The consistent and effective prevention of road traffic accidents and subsequent injuries need proper planning and comprehensive efforts.[4] Efforts to diminish the rate of road traffic accidents and RTDs could be successful with access to accurate data on the epidemiology of road traffic injuries. Such data enable countries to employ proper intervention to achieve their goals of preventing road traffic accidents and minimize associated injuries.[5]

Adequate knowledge of the influential factors in road traffic accidents enables countries to progressively decrease the rate of RTDs. The success rate of the measures to prevent RTDs varies across the globe. According to statistics, the highest success rate in the reduction of RTDs has been achieved in middle-and high-income countries, while no reduction in RTDs has been reported in low-income countries.[6] The countries in Africa and southeastern Asia are reported to have the highest rate of RTDs (26.6 and 20.7 cases per 100,000, respectively). On the other hand, the lowest rate of RTDs has been reported in East Mediterranean countries and Western Pacific regions (18 and 16.9 cases per 100,000, respectively). Among the six regions covered by the World Health Organization (WHO), a descending trend in RTDs has been reported in the United States, Europe, and Western Pacific regions since 2013.[6] It is notable that there are differences in the rates of RTDs in the regions covered by the WHO. For instance, the rate of RTDs in the high-and low-income countries in the United States has been estimated at 11.8 and 18.3 cases per 100 000, respectively. In Africa, the rates of RTDs in low-and middle-income countries have been reported to be 29.3 and 23.6 cases per 100 000, respectively. In Europe, the rate of RTDs in middle-and high-income countries has been estimated 23.6 and 14.4 cases per 100 000, respectively.[6]

The experience of the nations that have succeeded in the promotion of road safety and reduction of road accident injuries and RTDs shows that road traffic accidents are avoidable and preventable. Road traffic accidents are not inadvertent and are mainly caused by disruptions in the systemic interaction between humans, vehicles, roads and environmental factors. In high-income countries, injury surveillance systems make it possible to attain high-quality data regarding RTDs, road traffic accidents, and the associated risk factors. As a result, the risk factors involved in road traffic accidents could be properly recognized and be incorporated into prevention and control programs. However, many low-and middle-income countries lack sufficient, accurate epidemiological data regarding RTDs due to the absence of valid registry systems. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the incidence rate of road traffic injuries and identify the risk factors involved in RTDs directly and accurately.[5]

Several studies have been focused on the severity of road traffic accidents. The risk factors in this regard could be classified into four main categories, including human factors, vehicle-related factors, road-related factors, and environmental factors. Identification of the risk factors involved in RTDs could help policymakers and managers adopt effective strategies for the control and prevention of road traffic injuries and the associated outcomes. Lack of data on these risk factors makes it difficult for countries to properly recognize the problems and implement effective interventions in this regard.[6] This systematic review aimed at assessing the risk factors of RTDs based on the national studies conducted in this regard.

  Methods Top

This study was conducted during 2008–2018 via searching in databases PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane, Thomson Reuters, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Trip databases. Initially, a preliminary search was carried out to find similar systematic reviews, followed by the review of the literature to retrieve 3–5 related studies to collect the required data.

In the PubMed database, the search of articles was done with no limitations, and the search resulted in five articles. However, the review of the titles and abstracts of these articles indicated that they were irrelevant to the research subject. The literature search resulted in four articles in the Scopus database, none of which were relevant to the research subject. A review of the literature was also conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and PROSPERO databases to retrieve published or registered similar protocols. At this stage, no relevant protocols were found in PubMed.

To investigate the registered protocols, search for the relevant protocols was performed in the PROSPERO database using specific keywords, such as road accident risk factor. However, the search results showed no relevant protocols.

To search for related articles, the PECOTS search strategy was adopted based on the sample populations, exposure, comparison, outcomes, and type of relevant studies. The inclusion criteria in this study were as follows: the national-level studies about the risk factors related to RTDs, English language studies, and the studies published during 2008–2018. The search strategy was developed, and the search for the articles was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane, Thomson Reuters, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Trip databases. Moreover, the references of relevant articles were reviewed. The search results were investigated to find the relevant articles in two phases of screening and selection. The screening was carried out based on the titles and abstracts of the articles, and the selection of relevant articles was performed based on the full-text review of the articles. The flowchart of the literature search process is depicted in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: The flowchart of searching in systematic review

Click here to view

Duplicate studies were determined based on the titles, abstracts, and authors of the articles. The research stages were completed by two independent researchers. In case of disagreement regarding the selection of the articles, consensus or expert opinions were applied. In addition, the reasons for the inclusion or exclusion of each article were recorded.

The quality of the retrieved studies was assessed using the STROBE checklist for cross-sectional, cohort, and case–control studies by two researchers who were experts in the research projects regarding road traffic accidents. In case of disagreement, consensus or expert opinions were applied.

The data of the selected studies were extracted by two subject experts independently. Considering the difference in the quality of the studies, the third-quartile STROBE score (≥15) was determined to synthesizing the studies with acceptable quality.

  Results Top

In total, 169 articles were included in the present study. The distribution of the included articles in the six regions covered by the WHO was as follows: 108 articles from America, 33 articles from Europe, 10 articles from the Western Pacific region, one article from Africa, nine articles from Eastern Mediterranean, and eight articles from Southeastern Asia. Moreover, various observational studies were detected among the retrieved articles. The distribution of the reviewed articles is presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: Number and type of studies in 6 World Health Organization regions

Click here to view

Due to a large number of the studies (169 articles) to be presented in detail in a table, only the features of the selected cohort studies are shown in [Table 2] considering the high evidential level of observational studies. The characteristics of all the reviewed articles are presented in the Appendix section.
Table 2: The risk factors related to road traffic crashes deaths in cohort studies

Click here to view

According to this systematic review, most of the studies regarding RTDs were conducted in the United States, followed by Europe, the Western Pacific region, East Mediterranean, Southeastern Asia, and Africa. The investigation of the risk factors involved in RTDs was performed based on the quality assessment of the reviewed studies. Only one article in this regard has been published in Africa, which was not considered acceptable in the quality assessment. Moreover, nine articles have been published in this regard in the East Mediterranean, one of which required qualification to be further reviewed. There were 4, 17, and 50 qualified articles published in Southeastern Asia, Europe, and the United States, respectively.

According to the results of the present study, human factors were the most significant risk factor for RTDs in the reviewed studies. Some of the most important human factors have been reported to be age, male gender, education level, alcohol consumption, obesity, not using helmets by motorcyclists, driving without a driver's license, and high-speed driving. Obesity was reported to be a risk factor for RTDs in the United States and Europe. Moreover, ethnicity was considered to be a risk factor for RTDs only in the United States. In Southeastern Asia and the Western Pacific region, old age was reported to be a major risk factor for RTDs in motorcyclists. In the Middle East, the distraction of the driver was considered to be the only risk factor for RTDs.

Some of the main road-related risk factors for RTDs were reported to be urban roads, unpaved roads, off-road driving, and poor road conditions, which were extracted from the national data of the United States. In European countries, these factors included divided roads, two-way roads, and poor roadway design, which contributed to RTDs. In the southeastern regions of Asia, the main road-related risk factor for RTDs was reported to be the type of roads (local roads, highways, and freeways). Furthermore, roadside departure to the right side and long roads were denoted in the national data of the Western Pacific region on the incidence of RTDs. The only qualified study in East Mediterranean contained no data on the road-related risk factors for RTDs.

Environmental factors were considered to be among the risk factors involved in RTDs only in the United States. On the other hand, location-related factors were denoted in the United States (e.g., low-income areas), Europe (e.g., non-signalized zebra crosswalks, areas that were not built-up, geographic variations, and mid-block crosswalk location), Southeastern Asia, and Western Pacific region (e.g., interchange roads and rural areas).

Differences were observed between the six regions covered by the WHO in terms of the time-related risk factors for RTDs. Some of these factors were reported to be as follows: the United States (hour of the day, time of the accident, early-morning accidents, non-school night driving, driving in daylight hours), Europe (darkness [especially the lack of street lighting] and summertime), Southeastern Asia (time of the accident and motorcyclists involved in accidents at nighttime), and Western Pacific region (darkness hours).

In terms of the law-related factors, the most significant influential factors in the incidence of RTDs were reported to be restraint, high gasoline prices, driver's license law, renewal of the driver's license, and alcohol consumption policies. In Europe, helmet legislation was denoted as the only law-related factor in this regard.

According to the reviewed studies, the economic influential factors in the incidence of RTDs were mainly reported in the United States, Europe, Southeastern Asia, and the Western Pacific region. [Table 3] shows the distribution of the influential factors in the incidence of RTDs.
Table 3: The risk factors of road traffic accidents deaths extracted in national studies in World Health Organization regions

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

According to the current systematic review, the epidemiological pattern of road traffic crashes (RTCs) and the associated consequences vary in the six regions covered by the WHO.

Adequate knowledge of the risk factors involved in RTDs is essential to determining the priorities and implementing effective interventions. In the six regions covered by the WHO, available data are insufficient regarding the risk factors for RTDs in the low-and middle-income countries. According to these statistics, many countries in the world may be unable to reach their sustainable development goals in reducing RTDs up until the middle of 2020. Meanwhile, the number of vehicles has increased drastically across the world, with the rate of RTDs reaching from 135 cases per 100 vehicles in 2000 to 64 cases in 2016. Furthermore, the reduced rate of RTDs by 50% within the past 15 years could be due to progress in road safety although such progress is not considered acceptable considering the growing number of motor vehicles.[6]

In low- and middle-income countries, there is a lack of systematic enforcement to collect data on RTDs. Human factors were the most significant risk factor for RTDs in the reviewed studies. From an epidemiological perspective and based on the assessment of the causal network of injuries, the main influential factors in RTDs could be classified as the predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, and reinforcing factors. Some of these factors (e.g., age, gender, marital status, and education level) are regarded as the predisposing factors, which may be essential to causality relationships although they may not be sufficient. Some of the interventional enforcements regarding these factors include proper training and alcohol consumption, which are modifiable. Causality networks are also affected by enabling factors, which facilitate the development of diseases and the associated outcomes. Some of these factors are income status, climatic conditions, and access to health services, which may play a key role in causality network and are rarely sufficient. Enabling factors are often modifiable, and their modification could prevent RTCs. Precipitating factors are also considered in the investigation of the causality network of diseases and the associated outcomes. These factors contribute to disease development and the occurrence of injuries. Due to the wide range of these factors, one factor may be prioritized and regarded as the necessity factor. Some key precipitating factors include exposure to special diseases, physical shocks, occupational stimulators, and knowledge. In road traffic accidents, each human, road-related, vehicle-related, and environmental factor could play the role of a precipitating factor. For instance, in human factors, driver distraction could be considered a precipitating factor. Among the other examples in this regard are road flows, vehicle defects, snowy/rainy weather, and road slippage, which could be regarded as precipitating factors.

Reinforcing factors lead to the persistence of increased severity of diseases, as well as disabilities, impairments, and the subsequent behavioral patterns. These factors may be repeatable or consistent and not necessarily similar to predisposing, precipitating, and enabling factors. In terms of road traffic crash, some of these factors include incidental roads, poor awareness of road users regarding road safety, high-risk driving behaviors, motor vehicle defects, and low safety. According to the results of this systematic review in the regions covered by the WHO, human factors were the most common risk factors involved in RTDs; some of these factors were old age, male gender, low education level, alcohol consumption, obesity, not using safety helmets, driving without a driver's license, and high-speed driving.

Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor for RTDs in the United States and Europe. Accordingly, the risk of RTDs is higher in obese individuals compared to overweight and underweight individuals, as well as those with normal weight. The epidemic of obesity in the United States and Europe is considered to be a major challenge, which could be considered a risk factor in the countries with the growing trend of obesity as well.

Ethnicity has been reported to be a human risk factor for RTDs only in the United States. In addition, the beliefs of fatalism are reported to be more widespread in Hispanic and African populations. Based on this belief, when they are driving, they have no control over the probability of an accident, which exposed these individuals to a high risk of death due to fatal crash.[80] In Southeastern Asia and the West Pacific region, old age of motorcyclists has been reported to be a risk factor for RTDs. On the other hand, the findings of a study conducted in France indicated that elderly drivers are at a lower risk in terms of the lost life year compared to middle-aged and young drivers.[26] With respect to this association, some studies have denoted that attention deficits in elderly drivers play a pivotal role in road traffic crash.[174]

In an article published in the East Mediterranean region, driver distraction was reported to be a major risk factor for RTDs. Driver distraction mainly involves the driver not watching the road carefully while driving, which is often associated with the significant risk of road traffic crash.[95]

However, we only found one article regarding this risk factor, and further investigation is required to obtain detailed data in EMRO countries. Driver distraction could have various causes depending on time, place, and demographic characteristics; except age and gender, the mentioned demographic factors are all modifiable. Efficient planning on modifiable factors is essential to the prevention of road traffic crash and RTDs. Unfortunately, there were few qualified studies in this regard in Africa and East Mediterranean, while these regions mostly consist of low- and middle-income countries. These countries often lack effective registry systems for road traffic crash; this leads to numerous problems in planning and decision-making regarding road traffic crash.

One of the limitations of the present study was that we only reviewed English articles. Moreover, we selected a specific publication period for the articles.[6]

  Conclusions Top

There are similarities in the findings regarding the influential factors in the incidence of RTDs in the countries covered by the WHO. In addition, variable patterns are observed in the subcategories of each of the main factors in this regard, indicating the differences in the epidemiological patterns of road traffic accidents and RTDs. Therefore, researchers, managers, and policymakers must pay special attention to these discrepancies in the analysis of the related data, as well as planning, policymaking, and implementation of the related interventions.


We acknowledged all the people who helped us in accessing to the full text of articles.

Financial support and sponsorship

This article is derived from PhD thesis, which is funded by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Iran National Science Foundation.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Grimm M, Treibich C. Socio-Economic Determinants of Road Traffic Accident Fatalities in Low and Middle Income Countries. Vol. 504. International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University; 2010. p. 1-44.  Back to cited text no. 1
Manan MM, Jonsson T, Várhelyi A. Development of a safety performance function for motorcycle accident fatalities on Malaysian primary roads. Saf Sci 2013;60:13-20.  Back to cited text no. 2
Sarani R, Rahim S, Marjan JM, Voon WS. Predicting Malaysian road fatalities for year 2020. Transp Res Board 2012;†šp.12-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
Peden M, Scurfield R, Sleet D, Mohan D, Hyder AA, Jarawan E, editors. World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. World Health Organization; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 4
Bhalla K, Sharaz S, Abraham J, Bartels D, Yeh P. Road Injuries in 18 Countries: Methods, Data Sources and Estimates of the National Incidence of Road Injuries. Harvard Public Health; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 5
World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Road Safety. World Health Organization; 2018.  Back to cited text no. 6
Winston FK, Kallan MJ, Senserrick TM, Elliott MR. Risk factors for death among older child and teenaged motor vehicle passengers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008;162:253-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
Bilston LE, Du W, Brown J. A matched-cohort analysis of belted front and rear seat occupants in newer and older model vehicles shows that gains in front occupant safety have outpaced gains for rear seat occupants. Accid Anal Prev 2010;42:1974-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
Donate-López C, Espigares-Rodríguez E, Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Luna-del-Castillo Jde D, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Lardelli-Claret P. The association of age, sex and helmet use with the risk of death for occupants of two-wheeled motor vehicles involved in traffic crashes in Spain. Accid Anal Prev 2010;42:297-306.  Back to cited text no. 9
Gedeborg R, Thiblin I, Byberg L, Melhus H, Lindbäck J, Michaelsson K. Population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes. Inj Prev 2010;16:302-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
Males M. Traffic crash victimizations of children and teenagers by drinking drivers age 21 and older. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2010;71:351-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
Wu J, Subramanian R, Craig M, Starnes M, Longthorne A. The effect of earlier or automatic collision notification on traffic mortality by survival analysis. Traffic Inj Prev 2013;14 Suppl: S50-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
Donnelly JP, Griffin RL, Sathiakumar N, McGwin G Jr. Obesity and vehicle type as risk factors for injury caused by motor vehicle collision. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014;76:1116-21.  Back to cited text no. 13
Rice TM, Zhu M. Driver obesity and the risk of fatal injury during traffic collisions. Emerg Med J 2014;31:9-12.  Back to cited text no. 14
Macinko J, Silver D, Bae JY. Age, period, and cohort effects in motor vehicle mortality in the United States, 1980-2010: The role of sex, alcohol involvement, and position in vehicle. J Safety Res 2015;52:47-57.  Back to cited text no. 15
Brown JB, Gestring ML, Guyette FX, Rosengart MR, Stassen NA, Forsythe RM, et al. Helicopter transport improves survival following injury in the absence of a time-saving advantage. Surgery 2016;159:947-59.  Back to cited text no. 16
Rice TM, Anderson CL, Lee AS. The association between booster seat use and risk of death among motor vehicle occupants aged 4-8: A matched cohort study. Inj Prev 2009;15:379-83.  Back to cited text no. 17
Spoerri A, Egger M, von Elm E, Swiss National Cohort Study. Mortality from road traffic accidents in Switzerland: Longitudinal and spatial analyses. Accid Anal Prev 2011;43:40-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
Du W, Hayen A, Bilston L, Hatfield J, Finch C, Brown J. Association between different restraint use and rear-seated child passenger fatalities: A matched cohort study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008;162:1085-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
Awadzi KD, Classen S, Hall A, Duncan RP, Garvan CW. Predictors of injury among younger and older adults in fatal motor vehicle crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:1804-10.  Back to cited text no. 20
Eksler V, Lassarre S. Evolution of road risk disparities at small-scale level: Example of Belgium. J Safety Res 2008;39:417-27.  Back to cited text no. 21
Eluru N, Bhat CR, Hensher DA. A mixed generalized ordered response model for examining pedestrian and bicyclist injury severity level in traffic crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:1033-54.  Back to cited text no. 22
Factor R, Mahalel D, Yair G. Inter-group differences in road-traffic crash involvement. Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:2000-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
Gray RC, Quddus MA, Evans A. Injury severity analysis of accidents involving young male drivers in great Britain. J Safety Res 2008;39:483-95.  Back to cited text no. 24
Kvarnstrand L, Milsom I, Lekander T, Druid H, Jacobsson B. Maternal fatalities, fetal and neonatal deaths related to motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy: A national population-based study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2008;87:946-52.  Back to cited text no. 25
Lafont S, Amoros E, Gadegbeku B, Chiron M, Laumon B. The impact of driver age on lost life years for other road users in France: A population based study of crash-involved road users. Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:289-94.  Back to cited text no. 26
Leigh JP, Geraghty EM. High gasoline prices and mortality from motor vehicle crashes and air pollution. J Occup Environ Med 2008;50:249-54.  Back to cited text no. 27
Farmer P, Howard A, Rothman L, Macpherson A. Booster seat laws and child fatalities: A case-control study. Inj Prev 2009;15:348-50.  Back to cited text no. 28
Friedman LS, Hedeker D, Richter ED. Long-term effects of repealing the national maximum speed limit in the United States. Am J Public Health 2009;99:1626-31.  Back to cited text no. 29
Hyatt E, Griffin R, Rue LW 3rd, McGwin G Jr. The association between price of regular-grade gasoline and injury and mortality rates among occupants involved in motorcycle – And automobile-related motor vehicle collisions. Accid Anal Prev 2009;41:1075-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
Kposowa AJ, Breault KD. Motor vehicle deaths among men: Marital status, gender and social integration. Int J Mens Health 2009;8:129-42.  Back to cited text no. 31
Lardelli-Claret P, Espigares-Rodríguez E, Amezcua-Prieto C, Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Luna-del-Castillo Jde D, Bueno-Cavanillas A. Association of age, sex and seat belt use with the risk of early death in drivers of passenger cars involved in traffic crashes. Int J Epidemiol 2009;38:1128-34.  Back to cited text no. 32
Neeley GW, Richardson LE Jr. The effect of state regulations on truck-crash fatalities. Am J Public Health 2009;99:408-15.  Back to cited text no. 33
Traynor TL. The impact of state level behavioral regulations on traffic fatality rates. J Safety Res 2009;40:421-6.  Back to cited text no. 34
Wilson FA, Stimpson JP, Hilsenrath PE. Gasoline prices and their relationship to rising motorcycle fatalities, 1990-2007. Am J Public Health 2009;99:1753-8.  Back to cited text no. 35
Yan X, Radwan E, Mannila KK. Analysis of truck-involved rear-end crashes using multinomial logistic regression. Adv Transp Stud 2009;17:39-52.  Back to cited text no. 36
Farmer CM, Wells JK. Effect of enhanced seat belt reminders on driver fatality risk. J Safety Res 2010;41:53-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
Impinen A, Mäkelä P, Karjalainen K, Rahkonen O, Lintonen T, Lillsunde P, et al. High mortality among people suspected of drunk-driving. An 18-year register-based follow-up. Drug Alcohol Depend 2010;110:80-4.  Back to cited text no. 38
Karjalainen K, Lintonen T, Impinen A, Mäkelä P, Rahkonen O, Lillsunde P, et al. Mortality and causes of death among drugged drivers. J Epidemiol Community Health 2010;64:506-12.  Back to cited text no. 39
Lunevicius R, Herbert HK, Hyder AA. The epidemiology of road traffic injuries in the republic of Lithuania, 1998-2007. Eur J Public Health 2010;20:702-6.  Back to cited text no. 40
McCartt AT, Teoh ER, Fields M, Braitman KA, Hellinga LA. Graduated licensing laws and fatal crashes of teenage drivers: A national study. Traffic Inj Prev 2010;11:240-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
Ouimet MC, Simons-Morton BG, Zador PL, Lerner ND, Freedman M, Duncan GD, et al. Using the U.S. National household travel survey to estimate the impact of passenger characteristics on young drivers' relative risk of fatal crash involvement. Accid Anal Prev 2010;42:689-94.  Back to cited text no. 42
Sivak M, Schoettle B. Toward understanding the recent large reductions in U.S. Road fatalities. Traffic Inj Prev 2010;11:561-6.  Back to cited text no. 43
Teoh ER, Campbell M. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes. J Safety Res 2010;41:507-12.  Back to cited text no. 44
Bambach MR, Grzebieta RH, Olivier J, McIntosh AS. Fatality risk for motorcyclists in fixed object collisions. J Transp Saf Secur 2011;3:222-35.  Back to cited text no. 45
Castillo-Manzano JI, Castro-Nuño M, Pedregal DJ. Can fear of going to jail reduce the number of road fatalities? The Spanish experience. J Safety Res 2011;42:223-8.  Back to cited text no. 46
Chang DC, Eastman B, Talamini MA, Osen HB, Tran Cao HS, Coimbra R. Density of surgeons is significantly associated with reduced risk of deaths from motor vehicle crashes in US counties. J Am Coll Surg 2011;212:862-6.  Back to cited text no. 47
Daniello A, Gabler HC. Fatality risk in motorcycle collisions with roadside objects in the United States. Accid Anal Prev 2011;43:1167-70.  Back to cited text no. 48
Fell JC, Jones K, Romano E, Voas R. An evaluation of graduated driver licensing effects on fatal crash involvements of young drivers in the United States. Traffic Inj Prev 2011;12:423-31.  Back to cited text no. 49
Huang WS, Lai CH. Survival risk factors for fatal injured car and motorcycle drivers in single alcohol-related and alcohol-unrelated vehicle crashes. J Safety Res 2011;42:93-9.  Back to cited text no. 50
Lemp JD, Kockelman KM, Unnikrishnan A. Analysis of large truck crash severity using heteroskedastic ordered probit models. Accid Anal Prev 2011;43:370-80.  Back to cited text no. 51
Lopez-Charneco M, Conte-Miller MS, Davila-Toro F, García-Rivera EJ, Zavala DE, Torres Y, et al. Motor vehicle accident fatalities trends, Puerto Rico 2000-2007. J Forensic Sci 2011;56:1222-6.  Back to cited text no. 52
Sarkar S, Tay R, Hunt JD. Logistic regression model of risk of fatality in vehicle-pedestrian crashes on national highways in Bangladesh. Transp Res Rec 2011;2264:128-37.  Back to cited text no. 53
Chu HC. An investigation of the risk factors causing severe injuries in crashes involving gravel trucks. Traffic Inj Prev 2012;13:355-63.  Back to cited text no. 54
Eluru N, Bagheri M, Miranda-Moreno LF, Fu L. A latent class modeling approach for identifying vehicle driver injury severity factors at highway-railway crossings. Accid Anal Prev 2012;47:119-27.  Back to cited text no. 55
Jehle D, Gemme S, Jehle C. Influence of obesity on mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes. Am J Emerg Med 2012;30:191-5.  Back to cited text no. 56
Jou RC, Yeh TH, Chen RS. Risk factors in motorcyclist fatalities in Taiwan. Traffic Inj Prev 2012;13:155-62.  Back to cited text no. 57
Lyon JD, Pan R, Li J. National evaluation of the effect of graduated driver licensing laws on teenager fatality and injury crashes. J Safety Res 2012;43:29-37.  Back to cited text no. 58
Nagata T, Takamori A, Berg HY, Hasselberg M. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan. BMC Public Health 2012;12:887.  Back to cited text no. 59
Rolison JJ, Hewson PJ, Hellier E, Husband P. Risk of fatal injury in older adult drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60:1504-8.  Back to cited text no. 60
Theofilatos A, Graham D, Yannis G. Factors affecting accident severity inside and outside urban areas in Greece. Traffic Inj Prev 2012;13:458-67.  Back to cited text no. 61
Travis LL, Clark DE, Haskins AE, Kilch JA. Mortality in rural locations after severe injuries from motor vehicle crashes. J Safety Res 2012;43:375-80.  Back to cited text no. 62
Voas RB, Torres P, Romano E, Lacey JH. Alcohol-related risk of driver fatalities: An update using 2007 data. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2012;73:341-50.  Back to cited text no. 63
Bose D, Arregui-Dalmases C, Sanchez-Molina D, Velazquez-Ameijide J, Crandall J. Increased risk of driver fatality due to unrestrained rear-seat passengers in severe frontal crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2013;53:100-4.  Back to cited text no. 64
Drucker C, Gerberich SG, Manser MP, Alexander BH, Church TR, Ryan AD, et al. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles. Accid Anal Prev 2013;55:116-23.  Back to cited text no. 65
Kaimila B, Yamashina H, Arai A, Tamashiro H. Road traffic crashes and fatalities in Japan 2000-2010 with special reference to the elderly road user. Traffic Inj Prev 2013;14:777-81.  Back to cited text no. 66
Meehan WP 3rd, Lee LK, Fischer CM, Mannix RC. Bicycle helmet laws are associated with a lower fatality rate from bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. J Pediatr 2013;163:726-9.  Back to cited text no. 67
Silver D, Macinko J, Bae JY, Jimenez G, Paul M. Variation in U.S. Traffic safety policy environments and motor vehicle fatalities 1980-2010. Public Health 2013;127:1117-25.  Back to cited text no. 68
Stimpson JP, Wilson FA, Muelleman RL. Fatalities of pedestrians, bicycle riders, and motorists due to distracted driving motor vehicle crashes in the U.S 2005-2010. Public Health Rep 2013;128:436-42.  Back to cited text no. 69
Tefft BC. Impact speed and a pedestrian's risk of severe injury or death. Accid Anal Prev 2013;50:871-8.  Back to cited text no. 70
Wenzel T. The effect of recent trends in vehicle design on U.S. Societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled, and their projected future relationship with vehicle mass. Accid Anal Prev 2013;56:71-81.  Back to cited text no. 71
Zhu M, Zhao S, Gurka KK, Kandati S, Coben JH. Appalachian versus non-Appalachian U.S. Traffic fatalities, 2008-2010. Ann Epidemiol 2013;23:377-80.  Back to cited text no. 72
Fell JC. Update: Repeat DWI offenders involvement in fatal crashes in 2010. Traffic Inj Prev 2014;15:431-3.  Back to cited text no. 73
French MT, Gumus G. Macroeconomic fluctuations and motorcycle fatalities in the U.S. Soc Sci Med 2014;104:187-93.  Back to cited text no. 74
Jiménez-Mejías E, Onieva-García MÁ Robles-Martín J, Martínez-Ruiz V, Luna-Del-Castillo Jde D, Lardelli-Claret P. Why has the pedestrian death rate decreased in Spain between 1993 and 2011? An application of the decomposition method. Inj Prev 2014;20:416-20.  Back to cited text no. 75
Ossiander EM, Koepsell TD, McKnight B. Crash fatality and vehicle incompatibility in collisions between cars and light trucks or vans. Inj Prev 2014;20:373-9.  Back to cited text no. 76
Stimpson JP, Wilson FA, Araz OM, Pagan JA. Share of mass transit miles traveled and reduced motor vehicle fatalities in major cities of the United States. J Urban Health 2014;91:1136-43.  Back to cited text no. 77
Tefft BC. Driver license renewal policies and fatal crash involvement rates of older drivers, United States, 1986-2011. Inj Epidemiol 2014;1:25.  Back to cited text no. 78
Teoh ER. How have changes in front air bag designs affected frontal crash death rates? An update. Traffic Inj Prev 2014;15:606-11.  Back to cited text no. 79
Torres P, Romano E, Voas RB, de la Rosa M, Lacey JH. The relative risk of involvement in fatal crashes as a function of race/ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration. J Safety Res 2014;48:95-101.  Back to cited text no. 80
Bakhtiyari M, Delpisheh A, Monfared AB, Kazemi-Galougahi MH, Mehmandar MR, Riahi M, et al. The road traffic crashes as a neglected public health concern; an observational study from Iranian population. Traffic Inj Prev 2015;16:36-41.  Back to cited text no. 81
Bandi P, Silver D, Mijanovich T, Macinko J. Temporal trends in motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, 1968 to 2010 – A joinpoint regression analysis. Inj Epidemiol 2015;2:4.  Back to cited text no. 82
Bouaoun L, Haddak MM, Amoros E. Road crash fatality rates in France: A comparison of road user types, taking account of travel practices. Accid Anal Prev 2015;75:217-25.  Back to cited text no. 83
Cicchino JB. Why have fatality rates among older drivers declined? The relative contributions of changes in survivability and crash involvement. Accid Anal Prev 2015;83:67-73.  Back to cited text no. 84
Ewing R, Hamidi S. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian fatalities: Update and refinement. Transp Res Rec 2015;2513:40-7.  Back to cited text no. 85
Farmer CM, Lund AK. The effects of vehicle redesign on the risk of driver death. Traffic Inj Prev 2015;16:684-90.  Back to cited text no. 86
Fogarty AW, Liu C. Temporal trends in the associations between age, sex and socioeconomic status after death from motor vehicle collisions in England and Wales: 1960-2009. Emerg Med J 2015;32:203-6.  Back to cited text no. 87
Harper S, Charters TJ, Strumpf EC. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in motor vehicle accident deaths in the United States, 1995-2010. Am J Epidemiol 2015;182:606-14.  Back to cited text no. 88
Lee LK, Farrell CA, Mannix R. Restraint use in motor vehicle crash fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2015;79:S55-60.  Back to cited text no. 89
Lee LK, Monuteaux MC, Burghardt LC, Fleegler EW, Nigrovic LE, Meehan WP, et al. Motor vehicle crash fatalities in states with primary versus secondary seat belt laws: A time-series analysis. Ann Intern Med 2015;163:184-90.  Back to cited text no. 90
Martínez-Ruiz V, Jiménez-Mejías E, Amezcua-Prieto C, Olmedo-Requena R, Luna-del-Castillo Jde D, Lardelli-Claret P. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age – And sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates. Accid Anal Prev 2015;76:152-8.  Back to cited text no. 91
Yasmin S, Eluru N, Pinjari AR. Analyzing the continuum of fatal crashes: A generalized ordered approach. Anal Methods Accid Res 2015;7:1-15.  Back to cited text no. 92
Yeo J, Park S, Jang K. Effects of urban sprawl and vehicle miles traveled on traffic fatalities. Traffic Inj Prev 2015;16:397-403.  Back to cited text no. 93
Andrade SS, Mello-Jorge MH. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013. Rev Saude Publica 2016;50:59.  Back to cited text no. 94
Bakhtiyari M, Mehmandar MR, Riahi SM, Mansournia MA, Sartipi M, Bahadorimonfared A. Epidemiologic pattern of fatal traffic injuries among Iranian drivers; 2004-2010. Iran J Public Health 2016;45:503-14.  Back to cited text no. 95
Bénié Bi Vroh J, Tiembre I, Ekra DK, Ano Ama MN, Ka OM, Ncho Dagnan S, et al. Determinants of fatal road traffic injuries in Côte d'Ivoire from 2002 to 2011 Sante Publique 2016;28:647-53.  Back to cited text no. 96
Bhatti JA, Nathens AB, Redelmeier DA. Driver's obesity and road crash risks in the United States. Traffic Inj Prev 2016;17:604-9.  Back to cited text no. 97
Bin Islam M, Hernandez S. Fatality rates for crashes involving heavy vehicles on highways: A random parameter Tobit regression approach. J Transp Saf Secur 2016;8:247-65.  Back to cited text no. 98
Boufous S, Olivier J. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia. Inj Prev 2016;22:284-7.  Back to cited text no. 99
Brazil N, Kirk DS. Uber and metropolitan traffic fatalities in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 2016;184:192-8.  Back to cited text no. 100
Brazinova A, Majdan M. Road traffic mortality in the Slovak Republic in 1996-2014. Traffic Inj Prev 2016;17:692-8.  Back to cited text no. 101
Chang YS, Lee WJ, Lee JH. Are there higher pedestrian fatalities in larger cities?: A scaling analysis of 115 to 161 largest cities in the United States. Traffic Inj Prev 2016;17:720-8.  Back to cited text no. 102
Denning GM, Jennissen CA. All-terrain vehicle fatalities on paved roads, unpaved roads, and off-road: Evidence for informed roadway safety warnings and legislation. Traffic Inj Prev 2016;17:406-12.  Back to cited text no. 103
El-Menyar A, Consunji R, Asim M, Abdelrahman H, Zarour A, Parchani A, et al. Underutilization of occupant restraint systems in motor vehicle injury crashes: A quantitative analysis from Qatar. Traffic Inj Prev 2016;17:284-91.  Back to cited text no. 104
Gopaul CD, Singh-Gopaul A, Sutherland JM, Rostant L, Ebi KL, Chadee DD. The epidemiology of fatal road traffic collisions in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (2000-2011). Glob Health Action 2016;9:32518.  Back to cited text no. 105
Huang Y, Liu C, Pressley JC. Child restraint use and driver screening in fatal crashes involving drugs and alcohol. Pediatrics 2016;138. pii: e20160319.  Back to cited text no. 106
Tavakoli Kashani A, Rabieyan R, Besharati MM. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. J Inj Violence Res 2016;8:35-42.  Back to cited text no. 107
Matsui Y, Oikawa S, Sorimachi K, Imanishi A, Fujimura T. Association of impact velocity with risks of serious injuries and fatalities to pedestrians in commercial truck-pedestrian accidents. Stapp Car Crash J 2016;60:165-82.  Back to cited text no. 108
Onieva-García MÁ Martínez-Ruiz V, Lardelli-Claret P, Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Amezcua-Prieto C, de Dios Luna-Del-Castillo J, et al. Gender and age differences in components of traffic-related pedestrian death rates: Exposure, risk of crash and fatality rate. Inj Epidemiol 2016;3:14.  Back to cited text no. 109
Pulido J, Barrio G, Hoyos J, Jiménez-Mejías E, Martín-Rodríguez Mdel M, Houwing S, et al. The role of exposure on differences in driver death rates by gender and age: Results of a quasi-induced method on crash data in Spain. Accid Anal Prev 2016;94:162-7.  Back to cited text no. 110
Saha S, Schramm P, Nolan A, Hess J. Adverse weather conditions and fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States, 1994-2012. Environ Health 2016;15:104.  Back to cited text no. 111
Shults RA, Williams AF. Graduated driver licensing night driving restrictions and drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal night crashes – United States, 2009-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:725-30.  Back to cited text no. 112
Truong LT, Kieu LM, Vu TA. Spatiotemporal and random parameter panel data models of traffic crash fatalities in Vietnam. Accid Anal Prev 2016;94:153-61.  Back to cited text no. 113
Vanlaar W, Mainegra Hing M, Brown S, McAteer H, Crain J, McFaull S. Fatal and serious injuries related to vulnerable road users in Canada. J Safety Res 2016;58:67-77.  Back to cited text no. 114
Zhu M, Zhao S, Long DL, Curry AE. Association of graduated driver licensing with driver, non-driver, and total fatalities among adolescents. Am J Prev Med 2016;51:63-70.  Back to cited text no. 115
Besharati MM, Tavakoli Kashani A. Which set of factors contribute to increase the likelihood of pedestrian fatality in road crashes? Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2018;25:247-56.  Back to cited text no. 116
Dong C, Nambisan SS, Clarke DB, Sun J. Exploring the effects of state highway safety laws and sociocultural characteristics on fatal crashes. Traffic Inj Prev 2017;18:299-305.  Back to cited text no. 117
Farmer CM. Relationship of traffic fatality rates to maximum state speed limits. Traffic Inj Prev 2017;18:375-80.  Back to cited text no. 118
Hadland SE, Xuan Z, Sarda V, Blanchette J, Swahn MH, Heeren TC, et al. Alcohol policies and alcohol-related motor vehicle crash fatalities among young people in the US. Pediatrics 2017;139. pii: e20163037.  Back to cited text no. 119
Hamidun R, Roslan A, Sarani R. Exploring factors for pedestrian fatalities at junctions in Malaysia. Pertanika J Soc Sci Hum 2017;25:1833-40.  Back to cited text no. 120
Joseph B, Hadeed S, Haider AA, Ditillo M, Joseph A, Pandit V, et al. Obesity and trauma mortality: Sizing up the risks in motor vehicle crashes. Obes Res Clin Pract 2017;11:72-8.  Back to cited text no. 121
Kashani AT, Besharati MM. Fatality rate of pedestrians and fatal crash involvement rate of drivers in pedestrian crashes: A case study of Iran. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2017;24:222-31.  Back to cited text no. 122
Li G, Chihuri S, Brady JE. Role of alcohol and marijuana use in the initiation of fatal two-vehicle crashes. Ann Epidemiol 2017;27:342-70.  Back to cited text no. 123
Lombardi DA, Horrey WJ, Courtney TK. Age-related differences in fatal intersection crashes in the United States. Accid Anal Prev 2017;99:20-9.  Back to cited text no. 124
McDonald NC. Trends in automobile travel, motor vehicle fatalities, and physical activity: 2003-2015. Am J Prev Med 2017;52:598-605.  Back to cited text no. 125
Noland RB, Zhou Y. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities? Accid Anal Prev 2017;98:130-8.  Back to cited text no. 126
Plevin RE, Kaufman R, Fraade-Blanar L, Bulger EM. Evaluating the potential benefits of advanced automatic crash notification. Prehosp Disaster Med 2017;32:156-64.  Back to cited text no. 127
Robertson L. Climate change, weather and road deaths. Inj Prev 2018;24:232-5.  Back to cited text no. 128
Schepers P, Stipdonk H, Methorst R, Olivier J. Bicycle fatalities: Trends in crashes with and without motor vehicles in the Netherlands. Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav 2017;46:491-9.  Back to cited text no. 129
Wang Y, Liang L, Evans L. Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather. J Safety Res 2017;63:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 130
Wolf LL, Chowdhury R, Tweed J, Vinson L, Losina E, Haider AH, et al. Factors associated with pediatric mortality from motor vehicle crashes in the United States: A state-based analysis. J Pediatr 2017;187:295-302.e3.  Back to cited text no. 131
Goel R. Modelling of road traffic fatalities in India. Accid Anal Prev 2018;112:105-15.  Back to cited text no. 132
Jeppsson H, Östling M, Lubbe N. Real life safety benefits of increasing brake deceleration in car-to-pedestrian accidents: Simulation of vacuum emergency braking. Accid Anal Prev 2018;111:311-20.  Back to cited text no. 133
Lee JM. Mandatory helmet legislation as a policy tool for reducing motorcycle fatalities: Pinpointing the efficacy of universal helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev 2018;111:173-83.  Back to cited text no. 134
Martin JL, Wu D. Pedestrian fatality and impact speed squared: Cloglog modeling from French national data. Traffic Inj Prev 2018;19:94-101.  Back to cited text no. 135
Prato CG, Kaplan S, Patrier A, Rasmussen TK. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modeling pedestrian injury severity. Traffic Inj Prev 2018;19:88-93.  Back to cited text no. 136
Ramstedt M. Alcohol and fatal accidents in the United States – A time series analysis for 1950-2002. Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:1273-81.  Back to cited text no. 137
Houston DJ, Richardson LE. Motorcyclist fatality rates and mandatory helmet-use laws. Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:200-8.  Back to cited text no. 138
Rosén E, Sander U. Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed. Accid Anal Prev 2009;41:536-42.  Back to cited text no. 139
Arranz JM, Gil AI. Traffic accidents, deaths and alcohol consumption. Appl Econ 2009;41:2583-95.  Back to cited text no. 140
Romano E, Kelley-Baker T, Voas RB. Female involvement in fatal crashes: Increasingly riskier or increasingly exposed? Accid Anal Prev 2008;40:1781-8.  Back to cited text no. 141
Malyshkina NV, Mannering FL. Analysis of the effect of speed limit increases on accident-injury severities. Transp Res Rec 2008;1:122-7.  Back to cited text no. 142
Cheung I, McCartt AT. Declines in fatal crashes of older drivers: Changes in crash risk and survivability. Accid Anal Prev 2011;43:666-74.  Back to cited text no. 143
Nakahara S, Ichikawa M. Effects of high-profile collisions on drink-driving penalties and alcohol-related crashes in Japan. Inj Prev 2011;17:182-8.  Back to cited text no. 144
Goldstein GP, Clark DE, Travis LL, Haskins AE. Explaining regional disparities in traffic mortality by decomposing conditional probabilities. Inj Prev 2011;17:84-90.  Back to cited text no. 145
Kweon YJ, Lee J. Potential risk of using general estimates system: Bicycle safety. Accid Anal Prev 2010;42:1712-7.  Back to cited text no. 146
Chandran A, Sousa TR, Guo Y, Bishai D, Pechansky F; Vida No Transito Evaluation Team. Road traffic deaths in Brazil: Rising trends in pedestrian and motorcycle occupant deaths. Traffic Inj Prev 2012;13 Suppl 1:11-6.  Back to cited text no. 147
Males MA. Poverty as a determinant of young drivers' fatal crash risks. J Safety Res 2009;40:443-8.  Back to cited text no. 148
Brady JE, Li G. Prevalence of alcohol and other drugs in fatally injured drivers. Addiction 2013;108:104-14.  Back to cited text no. 149
Mannix R, Fleegler E, Meehan WP 3rd, Schutzman SA, Hennelly K, Nigrovic L, et al. Booster seat laws and fatalities in children 4 to 7 years of age. Pediatrics 2012;130:996-1002.  Back to cited text no. 150
Viano DC, Parenteau CS. Fatalities of children 0-7 years old in the second row. Traffic Inj Prev 2008;9:231-7.  Back to cited text no. 151
Wilson FA, Stimpson JP. Trends in fatalities from distracted driving in the United States, 1999 to 2008. Am J Public Health 2010;100:2213-9.  Back to cited text no. 152
Consunji RJ, Peralta RR, Al-Thani H, Latifi R. The implications of the relative risk for road mortality on road safety programmes in Qatar. Inj Prev 2015;21:e105-8.  Back to cited text no. 153
Chang K, Wu CC, Ying YH. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States. Accid Anal Prev 2012;45:406-15.  Back to cited text no. 154
Morrisey MA, Grabowski DC. Gas prices, beer taxes and GDL programmes: Effects on auto fatalities among young adults in the US. Appl Econ 2011;43:3645-54.  Back to cited text no. 155
Desai A, Bekelis K, Zhao W, Ball PA. Increased population density of neurosurgeons associated with decreased risk of death from motor vehicle accidents in the United States. J Neurosurg 2012;117:599-603.  Back to cited text no. 156
Cotti C, Tefft N. Decomposing the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and fatal car crashes during the great recession: Alcohol-and non-alcohol-related accidents. B E J Econom Anal Policy 2011;11:35-50.  Back to cited text no. 157
Masten SV, Foss RD, Marshall SW. Graduated driver licensing and fatal crashes involving 16- to 19-year-old drivers. JAMA 2011;306:1098-103.  Back to cited text no. 158
Hanna CL, Laflamme L, Bingham CR. Fatal crash involvement of unlicensed young drivers: County level differences according to material deprivation and urbanicity in the United States. Accid Anal Prev 2012;45:291-5.  Back to cited text no. 159
Bakhtiyari M, Mehmandar MR, Mirbagheri B, Hariri GR, Delpisheh A, Soori H. An epidemiological survey on road traffic crashes in Iran: Application of the two logistic regression models. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2014;21:103-9.  Back to cited text no. 160
Park K, Hwang SS, Lee JS, Kim Y, Kwon S. Individual and areal risk factors for road traffic injury deaths: Nationwide study in South Korea. Asia Pac J Public Health 2010;22:320-31.  Back to cited text no. 161
Denning GM, Harland KK, Ellis DG, Jennissen CA. More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: Increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities. Inj Prev 2013;19:250-6.  Back to cited text no. 162
Cummins JS, Koval KJ, Cantu RV, Spratt KF. Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents? Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2011;40:E26-9.  Back to cited text no. 163
Romano E, Voas RB. Drug and alcohol involvement in four types of fatal crashes. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2011;72:567-76.  Back to cited text no. 164
Bogstrand ST, Larsson M, Holtan A, Staff T, Vindenes V, Gjerde H. Associations between driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, speeding and seatbelt use among fatally injured car drivers in Norway. Accid Anal Prev 2015;78:14-9.  Back to cited text no. 165
Carpenter D, Pressley JC. Graduated driver license nighttime compliance in US teen drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2013;56:110-7.  Back to cited text no. 166
Oh C, Kang YS, Youn Y, Konosu A. Development of probabilistic pedestrian fatality model for characterizing pedestrian-vehicle collisions. Int J Automot Technol 2008;9:191-6.  Back to cited text no. 167
Zhu M, Zhao S, Coben JH, Smith GS. Why more male pedestrians die in vehicle-pedestrian collisions than female pedestrians: A decompositional analysis. Inj Prev 2013;19:227-31.  Back to cited text no. 168
Keall MD, Newstead S. Analysis of factors that increase motorcycle rider risk compared to car driver risk. Accid Anal Prev 2012;49:23-9.  Back to cited text no. 169
Zhu M, Cummings P, Zhao S, Coben JH, Smith GS. The association of graduated driver licensing with miles driven and fatal crash rates per miles driven among adolescents. Inj Prev 2015;21:e23-7.  Back to cited text no. 170
Olszewski P, Szagała P, Wolański M, Zielińska A. Pedestrian fatality risk in accidents at unsignalized zebra crosswalks in Poland. Accid Anal Prev 2015;84:83-91.  Back to cited text no. 171
Prato CG, Gitelman V, Bekhor S. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel. Accid Anal Prev 2012;44:56-62.  Back to cited text no. 172
Kusano KD, Gabler HC. Comprehensive target populations for current active safety systems using national crash databases. Traffic Inj Prev 2014;15:753-61.  Back to cited text no. 173
Daigneault G, Joly P, Frigon JY. Executive functions in the evaluation of accident risk of older drivers. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2002;24:221-38.  Back to cited text no. 174


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Traffic accident severity prediction with ensemble learning methods
Süleyman Çeven, Ahmet Albayrak
Computers and Electrical Engineering. 2024; 114: 109101
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 PERSIAN traffic safety and health cohort: a population-based precrash cohort study
Mina Golestani, Alireza Razzaghi, Mehdi Rezaei, Leila Vahedi, Faramarz Pourasghar, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Alireza Shafiee-kandjani, Mohammad Meshkini, Fatemeh Jahanjoo, Mir Bahador Yazdani, Elham Davtalab Esmaeili, Ali Jafari-Khounigh, Sajjad Ahmadi, Reza Mohammadi, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
BMJ Open. 2024; 14(2): e080720
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Development and evaluation of a scale to measure nurses’ unsafe driving behaviour while commuting
Hanizah Mohd Yusoff, Khairil Idham Ismail, Rosnah Ismail, Nor Kamaliana Khamis, Rosnawati Muhamad Robat, Jonathan Michael Bryce
Heliyon. 2023; : e23735
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Risks of organ failures and deaths associated with young-onset dementia after hospitalizations for motor vehicle crash injuries: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study
Chien-Hui Liu, Jiun-Yi Wang, Kun-Chia Chang, Ming-Chung Ko, Pei-Chen Lee, Chih-Ching Liu
Scientific Reports. 2023; 13(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 A New ECG Data Processing Approach to Developing an Accurate Driving Fatigue Detection Framework with Heart Rate Variability Analysis and Ensemble Learning
Junartho Halomoan, Kalamullah Ramli, Dodi Sudiana, Teddy Surya Gunawan, Muhammad Salman
Information. 2023; 14(4): 210
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Edgaras Naidic, Justas Bražiunas
Mokslas - Lietuvos ateitis. 2023; 15(0): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Assessing Factors Associated with Non-Fatal Injuries from Road Traffic Accidents among Malaysian Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the PURE Malaysia Study
Zaleha Md Isa, Noor Hassim Ismail, Rosnah Ismail, Azmi Mohd Tamil, Mohd Hasni Ja’afar, Nafiza Mat Nasir, Maizatullifah Miskan, Najihah Zainol Abidin, Nurul Hafiza Ab Razak, Khairul Hazdi Yusof
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(14): 8246
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Ride-hailing services: Competition or complement to public transport to reduce accident rates. The case of Madrid
María Flor, Armando Ortuńo, Begońa Guirao
Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Characteristics of road traffic mortality and distribution of healthcare resources in Thailand
Kasem Seresirikachorn, Panisa Singhanetr, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, Anyarak Amornpetchsathaporn, Thanaruk Theeramunkong
Scientific Reports. 2022; 12(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 The risks of warm nights and wet days in the context of climate change: assessing road safety outcomes in Boston, USA and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
José Ignacio Nazif-Munoz,Pablo Martínez,Augusta Williams,John Spengler
Injury Epidemiology. 2021; 8(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Drinking and Night-Time Driving May Increase the Risk of Severe Health Outcomes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study of Traffic Injuries among International Travelers at a University Hospital Emergency Center in Thailand
Vorapot Sapsirisavat,Wiriya Mahikul
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18): 9823
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Precipitation in?uence assessment on accidents risk outside built-up areas
E. V. Pechatnova,K. E. Safronov
The Russian Automobile and Highway Industry Journal. 2020; 17(4): 512
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Road safety lessons to learn from Low and Middle-Income Countries
Ray Shuey, Lori Mooren, Mark King
Journal of Road Safety. 2020; 31(3): 69
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded644    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 13    

Recommend this journal